Skeletal System 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
eliipsoid
radius/carpals/tibia/tarsals
osteoclasts
break bone cells
synotosis
sutures in skull
PERIOSTEUM
Covers the bone
EPIPHYSEAL PLATES
Responsible for lengthening.
interior
more towards front (opposite posterior)
Bones- 5 jobs
ProtectionStorageMovementBlood Cell formationShape and support
TRUE RIBS
Join the sternum directly.
living
Are bones living or nonliving?
epidermis
outer layer of skin - dead
tendon
tough connective tissues that join bones to skeletal muscles
compact bone
has continuous extracellular matrix, packed tight, no spaces (diaphysis)
osteobiasis
form bone cells, ostociast dissolve bone cells within lacunae within the harvestan system. thus bones are in a constant state of rebuilding and remodeling
BONES
Store calcium. Large quantities of calcium phosphate.
Elbow joint
Example of a pivot joint
straited muscles
muscles like skeletal and cardiac muscles (with lines)
endosteum
lining of the inside of the diaphysis
spongy bone
(see cancellous); layer of compact bone on the surface, with numerous branching plates inside creating spaces
functions
1. provide frame work for body2. provide attachment for muscles3. protects interior organs4. manifactures all the blood cells5. stores calcium and phospharous
OSTEOBLASTS
Deposit bone. Built up. When blood calcium is low it breaks down bone.
freely movable joint
ball-and-socket, pivot, hinge, and gliding
red marrow
found in humerus, femur, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and pelvis & is the site of red & white blood cells and blood clotting
cartilage
tough tissue similar to bone but softer and less brittle, located on end of bones
ball and socket joint
(shoulder) freely jmoveable joint- widest range of motion
keratin
a protein found in skin that produces a waste product of surface water
flat bones
ex: ribs, scapulae, skull; broad, with flat surfaces of compact bone covering cancellous
Axial
bones that form the middle line of body (skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae)
HEMATOPOIESIS
Occurs in the yolk sac, liver and spleen, and red bone marrow. In the embro. Red blood cell production.
joint
meeting point of two or more bones, can be movable or immovable
haversian canals
a network of tubes that contain blood vessals and nerves - goes through compact bone
Appendicular skeleton
upper and lower limbs, and those bones that attach limbs to the axial skeleton
Appendicular
bones of the limbs that attach to the midline (clavicle, pelvis, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, patella, tibia, fibula)
oste/o
bone
cost/o
rib
vertebr/o
vertebra
Pelv
root
pelvis
middle ear 
temporal 
Metatarsals
forms instep
ankyl/o
stiff joint
Depressions (2)
fossa, sulcus
trapped in lacunae
osteocyte
LUE
left upper extremity
sphenoid
the sphenoid bone.
a small rounded projection
tubercle
chondromalacia
abnormal softening of cartilage
Describe Albers-Schonberg disease.
osteosclerotic osteopetrosis;
increased bone density but normal contour (benign). General health unimpaired
-weight distribution-strength-support structure
irregular bones
Chondrocyte
synovial Fibroblast, Tumor epithelial cells.
posterior part of hard plate 
palatine 
4 types of bone shapes?
LongShortFlatIrregular
name of unconnected costals
"floating" ribs
posterior longtiduinal ligaments
resists back flexion
That congenital/hereditary condition (sometimes referred to as brittle bone disease) which results in deficient calcium and blue tint to the sclera is:
osteogenesis imperfecta
Closed reduction
non-surgical realignment of bone
cranium
the skull of a vertebrate.
Lumbar (axial)
The small of the back
endochondral ossification
replacement of cartilage by bone
opposition
pressing of two body structures against each other; usually this is a grasping activity
Radius
main weight bearing bone of antebrachium. articulates with humerus & ulna
osteomalacia
adult rickets, abnormal softening of bones in adults, usually caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, and/or phosphate
Atlas
Cervical vertebra that balances and supports the head
decreases frictions at joint surfaces
articular cartilage
The most common inherited disorder affecting the skeletal system is ________. This disorder results shortened extremities and dwarfism.
Achondroplasia
suture
immovable joints found only in skull
trochlea
a pulleylike structure or arrangement of parts.
ossification
the act or process of ossifying.
Amphiarthroses
Slightly movable joint such as the joint joining the two pubic bones.
Diarthrosis
Any of several types of bone articulation permitting free motion in a joint, as that of the shoulder or hip
sternum
breastbone, is a flat, narrow bone located inthe center of the anterior thoracic wall and consists of three parts
intrinsic
located in the structure (usually a muscle adj.)
Cancellous Bone
light, spongy bone.tiny spicules of bone, spaces full of bone marrow.found in epiphyses of long bones
What are the planes fo dynamic motion?
-monaxial-biaxial-triaxial
hallux valgus
bunion, abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
Fissure
slit between tow bones through which nerves or blood vessels pass
osteosarcoma
Malignant tumor of the bone; cancer arising from connective tissue
Rheumatoid Arthritis is classified as an inflammatory disease caused by:
autoimmune response
bones connected by the sagittal suture
parietal bones
spondylolisthesis
the forward sliding of a lumbar vertebra ove rthe
coccyx
a small triangular bone forming the lower extremity of the spinal column in humans, consisting of four ankylosed rudimentary vertebrae.
ischium
the lower portion of either innominate bone.
carpal
any of the bones of the wrist.
cuboid
noting or pertaining to the outermost bone of the distal row of tarsal bones.
pelvic girdle
connects to the legs to the trunk
Types of Bones
Long, Short, Flat, Irregular, Wormian, Sessamoid
Calcium & Phosphorous
Bone tissues store several minerals, especially __________ and ___________ which contribute to the strength of the bone
The middle of a long bone is called?
Diaphysis
What is the strongest bone in the body?
Femur
red bone marrow
blood-cell forminf tussue located in the spaces within spongy bone
Obturator foramen
Large opening between bodies of pubis and ischium
exists for passage of nerves and blood vessels to the lower leg
Skeleton's largest foramen
canaliculi
tiny canals that connects all the bone cells to the nutrient supply. radiate outward from haversion canals
Surgical excision of the nidus is common treatment for:
Osteoid osteoma
herniated nucleus pulposus
herniation or protrusion of an intervertebral disk
growth in length
interstitial growth only at epiphyseal plates
-injury to the plate can cause early closure
manubrium
the uppermost of the three portions of the sternum.
trapezoid
a bone in the wrist that articulates with the metacarpal bone of the forefinger.
ligament
a band of tissue, usually white and fibrous, serving to connect bones, hold organs in place, etc.
occipital bone
a curved, compound bone forming the back and part of the base of the skull.
tarsus
the bones of the proximal segment of the foot; the bones between the tibia and the metatarsus, contributing to the construction of the ankle joint.
 
Red Bone Marrow 
Connective tissue in the spaces of cancellous bone or in the medullary cavity, the site of blood cell production.
Metaphysis, epiphyseal (growth) plate, epiphyseal line
_______are regions between the diaphysis and the epiphysis, in each growing bone, each metaphysis contains________, a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length, when bone growth stops the cartilage is replaced with bone called _________
define/describe: osteoporosis
when bone becomes porous due to loss of calcium
rotator cuff
tendons that encircle and gelp form a socket for the humerus, and also helo reinforce the shoulder joint.
False ribs
5 pairs of ribs not directly attached to sternum
What do osteoclasts do?
Enlarge medullary cavity by removing bone (important in serum calcium and phosphorus equilibrium)
compression fracture
fracture involving loss of height of a vertebral b
capitate bone
the largest and central bone of the carpus, articulating with the second, third, and fourth metacarpal bones.
occipital condyle
a protrusion on the occipital bone of the skull that forms a joint with the first cervical vertebra, enabling the head to move relative to the neck.
humerus
the long bone in the arm of humans extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
lunate
the second bone from the thumb side of the proximal row of bones of the carpus.
metacarpus
the part of a hand or forelimb, esp. of its bony structure, included between the wrist, or carpus, and the fingers, or phalanges.
phalanx
any of the bones of the fingers or toes.
Intramembraneous ossification
is the simpler of the two methods of bone formation
What are the skeletal systems in animals (2-3 depending on animal)
1) axial2) appendicular3) visceral
The arms are connected to the rib cage by connecting bones organized as the
pectoral girdle
what structure passes through the foramen lacerum?
foramen is filled with cartilage
foramen magnum
the large opening in the base of the skull forming the passage from the cranial cavity to the spinal canal.
tibia
the inner of the two bones of the leg, that extend from the knee to the ankle and articulate with the femur and the talus; shinbone.
what is the function of a ligament
to connect bone to bone
Articular processes of vertebrae (superior and inferior)
Sites of attachment for back muscles and ligaments
The Mandible Bone
- The Lower jaw. The only part of the facial bones that move.
What is rotation? What types are there?
-Pivoting a bone on its axis-Internal/inward-lateral or external or outward-supination (hand palm up)-pronation (hand palm down)
the skeltal sustem includes the _____, the______, the ______, the ______, and the ______
the bones, the joints, the tendons, the cartilage, and the ligaments
What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
It is a build up of fluid in the wrist between the ligaments, tendons, and bone. Causes pain and swelling.
articul/o
joint
APAP
Acetaminophen
crani/o
skull
physis
to grow
Abduction
opposite, apart
-desis
stabilize, fuse
Sternum (axial)
The "breastbone"
-lysis
breakdown, setting free
osteogenesis
Formation of bone
NSAID
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Muscle
Tissue that provides movement.
ilium
dorsocranial direction.forms SI (sacroiliac) joint with sacrum
formal name for thumb
pollex
ends of long bone
epiphyeses
middle structure of sternum
body
Capsular ligaments
Capsular ligaments- support intervertebral joints at the articular facets
irregular bones
oddly shaped
pelvis, jaw, vertebrae 
Rickets
nutritional imbalance. disease of young bones that affects the growing areas of bone
socket of shoulder joint
glenoid fossa(e)
ischial
Pertaining to the ischium (hip)
upper jaw bones
maxillary bones (maxillae)
bottom structure of sternum
xphoid process
Process
any marked bony prominence or projection
a pit or socket in bone
alveolus
Ribs
flat bones, lateral walls of thorax.dorsal heads of the ribs articulate with thoracic vertebrae
orthopedic surgeon
orthopedist, physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
The anterior rod-shaped bones that helps connect the arm bones to the axial skeleton is the
clavicle
lordosis
Abnormal anterior curvature of the LUMBAR spine.
"Swayback" due abdomen & buttocks protrude due to exaggerated lumbar concave curvature.
What types of joints are synovial?
diarthrodial
craniotomy
incision into the skullcrani/o -tomy
carpals (wrist bones)tarsels (ankle bones)
flat bones
tubercle
a small rounded projection or excrescence, as on a bone or on the surface of the body.
Ribs (axial)
The bones connecting the thoracic vertebrae and the sternum; all ribs together form the rib cage
scoliosis
a lateral bending of the vertebral column, usually in thoracic region
origin
least or less movable attachment place (proximal)
Trochanters
processes where hip & thigh muscles attach
a connective joint only found between skull bones
sutures
# of caudal vertebrae
3-5 fused into coccyx
The coronoid fossa is a depression located between the epicondyles of the
humerus
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Chronic systemic disease characterized by inflammation of joints, stiffness, pain and swelling resulting in crippling deformities. Also affects many of body's organs and systems.
Premature closing of the sutures of the skull resulting in disfiguration is:
Craniosynostoses
ragged break occuring when excessiver twisting forces are applied to a bone
spiral fracture
pathologic fracture
fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone
maxilla
a jaw or jawbone, esp. the upper.
acetabulum
the socket in the hipbone that receives the head of the thighbone.
 
 
FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM
-Support - framework for the attachment of soft tissue
-Protects soft tissues
-Storage depot - calcium salts that make bones hard is valuable 
   mineral reserve
-Blood cell production 
-Movement - form levers that skeletal muscles attach
Notch
a "V"-like depression in the margin or edge of a flat area
Ball & Socket Joints
spheroidal joints. all joint movements. ex: shoulder/hip joints
How many vertebrae are in the lumbar part?
5
Herniated disk
Disks bulge out of shape
protrusion of the disk presses on the spinal cord or a nerve bringing pain and numbness
Genu valgum.
Genu Varum.
Knock-knee; ankles apart when knees together.
Bowleg; legs bowed as knees far apart when child stands.
spiral fracture
fracture in which the fracture line spirals around
depressions and openings
result from compressive forces or allow passage of soft tissues - fissure, foramen, fossa, fovea, meatus, sulcus
trapezium
a bone in the wrist that articulates with the metacarpal bone of the thumb.
haversian canal
a microscopic channel in bone, through which a blood vessel runs.
xiphisternum
the lowermost of the three segments of the sternum.
Cranium (axial)
The portion of the skull that encases the brain.
simple fracture;
bone breaks but does not penetrate the skin
The technical term for losing bone as we age
bone resorption
what is osteoporosis?
failure of osteoblasts to create new bone
Blood supply & cells with an intact periosteum and endosteum is needed for...
Fracture repair
hard palate
the roof of the mouth, consisting of an anterior bony portion
patella
the flat, movable bone at the front of the knee; kneecap.
femur
a bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
navicular
the bone at the radial end of the proximal row of the bones of the carpus.
Fracture treatment:
open reduction;
surgery is used to realign the bones often involving pins, rods or screws
What is interstitial growth?
It is the epiphyseal plate that allows the diaphysis of a long bone to increase in length.
Vomer bone (nasal septum)
divides nasal cavity into left and right
what are the four major events involved in the repair of a bone fracture?
hematoma formation, fibrocartilage callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling
trochanter
either of two knobs at the top of the femur, the greater on the outside and the lesser on the inside, serving for the attachment of muscles between the thigh and pelvis.
Discuss the function of the skeletal system
a.) Fundamental to the maintance of an erect positionb.) Provides protectionc.) Provides support- suspension of upper limp by shoulder girdled.) Important in movemente.) Formation of Red blood cellsf.) Storage area for Calcium, fat and phosphate
list 4 factors that influence bone development, growth and repair
nutrition, exposure to sunlight, hormonal secretions, and physical excercise
what bone type of bone is it? do not fit any other classifications
irregular bones
bone growth during infancy, childhood, and adolesence
long bone grows in lengthother bones of body grow in thickness
function of red bone marrow
to produce red and white blood cells (hematopoeisis)
# of phalanges per digit and total
3 for each finger
2 for thumb
14 total
how many floating ribs are there and what are they?
last two ribs dont have an anterior attachment
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