Soc 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tenochtitlan
city of aztecs
Taino
first tribe Columbus met
Twantinsuyu
Word for Inca Empire
Quechua
Language of Inca empire
Indian
misnomer created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of New World; implies social and ethnic commonality among Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans
Aztec social hierarchy
priests/nobles, merchants, serfs, slaves
Pochteca
special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items
Linguistic styles that reflect the different worlds of women and men
Genderlects
People actively interpret each other's actions and reactions and behave in accordance with the interpretation
Symbolic Interaction
Huacas
sacred spirits and powers that resided or appeared in caves, mountains , rocks, rivers, and other natural phenomena; typical of Andean societies.
Calpulli
clans in Aztec society; later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
Treating others as competitors or enemies
Oppositional Interaction
2 or more people disregarding any rules trying to achieve their goal by defeating the other
Conflict
Webers term for the process of replacing subjective, spontaneous, informal and diverse ways of doing things with a planned, objective, formally unified method based on abstract rules
Rationalization
Treating others as friends or supporters
Supportive Interaction
Chinampas
beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs
A collection of people who interact with one another and have a certain feeling of unity
Social Group
A group formed by the informal relationships among members of an organization-based on personal interactions, not on any plan by the organization
Informal Organization
The group to which an individual is strongly tied as a member
In-Group
Interaction in which 2 or more people work together to achieve a common goal
Cooperation
The process by which an individual acts or reacts to others
Social Interaction
The separation of our role-playing as outward performance from our inner self
Role Distance
The analysis of how people define the world in which they live
Ethnomethodology
tambos
way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used
A group of which an individual is not a member
Out-Group
The use of space in a way to communicate
Proxemics
The process by which people create through social interactions certain ideas, feelings, and beliefs about their environment
Social Construction of Reality
Sudras
common laborers
Gender roles
rights, responsibilities, expectations, and relationships of men and women in society.
Plato
Pupil of Socrates, philosopher. Believed that human reason could approach an understanding of 3 perfect forms - the true, good, and beautiful.
Culture
The knowledge, language, values, beliefs, norms, technology and material objects that are passed down person to person, generation to generation to the next in a human group or society in which form a peoples way of life.
homophobia
fear and prejudice against homosexuality
bigoted
utterly intolerant of any creed, belief, or opinion that differs from one's own
Representing living beings in ways that make them seem like objects
objectification
Moe
Education Reform: School vouchers and education reform
violent crime
actions-- murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault-- involving force or the threat of force against others
fashion
a pleasurable mass involvement that has a line of historical continuity
stereotype
an unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences w/in a group
football
known for violence, no helmets, banned from some colleges, almost outlawed
A researcher who is examining toys that can be used to learn about houswork, like toy stoves and dolls, is probably usign which of the following frameworks?
socialization
Cohabitation
two adults living together in a sexual relationship without being legally married.
false consciousness
the class consciousness of subordiate classes who have internalized the view of the dominant class
The Meaning of Citizenship
Michael Wucker:

“Changing Concepts of Citizenship and Nationality Across Time and Space”

Originating in ancient city-states (e.g., Rome), the original rules of citizenship were intended to keep people from leaving.
Today, citizenship rules try to manage the flow of migrants.
social stratification
the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources
of the inflow study on occupation, which had the highest recruitment rate?
farmworkers
modernization thoery
a functionalist approach that proposes that modernization and development will gradually improve the lives of ppl in developing nations
esteem
reputation that a specific person has earned w/in an occupation
social heritage
the entire inherited pattern of cultural activity present in a society
Ayan
wealthy land elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
Independent variable
variable that the researcher wants to test
Shiites
members of the sect of Islam which believes that Muslim leadership passed from Muhammad to his son-in-law
Matrilucality
lives near or with female side of family
resocialization
the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one's background and previous experience
Lewis Coser and Ralf Dahrendorf is what type of theorist?
conflict functionalist
*Meade's stages of self*
1) preparation (observing, learning, symbols) 2) play (relationship, role playing, skills developed) 3) game (begin to understand the self, make personal connections, take roles)
labeling theory
an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain ppl are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not
exploitation theory
a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the US as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
bandwagon
a party that by its mass appeal or strength readily attracts many followers
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups; capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor
What is micro-level analysis
An examination of small-scale patterns of society
Prisoners do not apply for parole they become eligible and go in front of a ___________
parole board
open system
a social system where the position of each individual is influenced by his or her actions
horizontal mobility
the movement of an individual from 1 social position to another of the same rank
Which of the following is true regarding children's contributions to housework among two-parent families?
african-american children do signifciantly more houswork than whit echildren
SLAPPS/Veggie libel laws and specific examples
SLAPPS (Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participants)
Food SLAPPS
veggie libel laws
1991-1992 veggie libel laws in 13 states
must prove statements are true
1996 Tex cattle-ranchers
April 16, 1996 Mad cow disease
10.3 million dollars suit
prices of cattle dropped
Mclibel
England 1980
“Whats wrong with McD’s”
exploiting children, workers
damaging rainforests
sent spies to see who organized
names and addresses
5 individuals sued
demonstrate it was true
1994 2 1/2 years longest trial in Britain
2/3 of SLAPPS are dropped before the trial
Most Veggie Libel/SLAPPS lawsuits are not filed for the purpose of the corporation to win, they are used as a means to scare future veggie libel law “offenders” out of talking badly about the corporation. The defendants often have a large monetary loss and often have to devote more time than they have to the case. This forces them to eventually give the case up which is why ⅔ of the cases are dropped before trial or settled out of court.
Hidden curriculum in school
informal lessons that teach how to behave or think (show and tell) prepares you for life
When comparing families on welfare with the general national population, wich of the following is most accurate?
families on welfare have fewer children on the average
And social networks, the microstructure of migration:
Immigrants move based on stories from relatives and friends who have gone ahead.
What is "the negro problem"?Who discusses this?
DuBois-A remark used that blames blacks for being poor and violent, but it is not actually their own fault. It is the school systems and work place discrimination that they face
Allan Johnson was using that mindset when he said,
“We are always participating in something larger than ourselves: social systems.”
how does the FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE explain deviance?
many of the existing approaches to deviance and crime were developed w/only men in mind; society tends to treat women in a stereotypical fashion
The patterns of US immigration now are quite diverse.
NOT all profoundly poor. (Likelihood of having a college degree is similar for immigrant and non-immigrant.)
Some are wealthy, others are professionals or entrepreneurs
A wide range of readiness to assimilate.
Stage 2: The call to a counseling career
Take on their own role as counselor
who are the POOR?
1 out of ever 9 ppl in the US, not a statistic social class
social mobility
mobility
components of culture
Material 
symbolic
Functionalist view
Provides people with1)quick, impersonal sexual gratification with no emotional attachment2)a sexual outlet for those without ongoing sexual relationships3) the opportunity to engage in non-traditional sexual practices4)protection for the family as a social institution5) jobs for people with no traditional job skills
Evans used this.
Deductive, Quantitative, Nomothetic.
periodic assemblies
recurring, relatively routine gatherings of ppl, such as a college class
Mecca
most important city in the transcontinental trading system that stretched from the Mediterranean to East Asia; shrine called Ka'ba; place of truce in interclan feuds; original home of Muhammad
Death and Dying
denial, anger, negotiation, depression, acceptance
Homophoba
the fear and hatred of homosexuality
invention
existing cultural items conbined into form that did not exist before
*functionalist perspecitve*
a sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which parts of a society are constructed to maintain its stability
luddites
Rebellius craft workers in 19th century England who destroyed new factory machinery as part of their resistance to the industrial revolution
Alexandria
City named after Alexander the Great. Trade flourished. Was an important scientific center. Center of world trade and culture.
global culture
diffusion of a sigle culture throughout the world
aggregation of people who regularly interact and have something in common
social groups
low SES
-mostly commit violent and property crimes like B&E, or theft
mesa
high, flat landform that rises steeply from the land around it
demedicalization
the process whereby a problem ceases to be defined as an illness or a disorder
Which criterion is most important in the prosecutor's decision to charge? A. seriousness of the offense charged?B. dangerousness of the defendant C. relationship of the defendant to the victim D. strength of the case (evidence)
D.
panic
a fearful arousal or collective flight based on a generalized belief that may or may not be accurate
Counterculture
A group or category of people who deliberately oppose and consciously reject some of the basic beliefs, values, and norms of the dominant culture
Urbanization
The movement of masses of people from rural to urban areas and an increase in urban influence over all spheres of culture and society
Social Exchange Theory
All human relationships formed after a cost/benefit analysis.-Equitable relationship: costs and benefits of maintaining the relationship are equal
women's movement
-the goal of improving the condition and quality of women's lives
Degregation Ceremony
a movement from legitimate status to illegitimate status
Social Network
A series of social relationships that links a person directly to others and through them indirectly to more people
Which is true of work group judges?A. most are electedB. gender affects decision making
A.
relative poverty
a floating standard of deprivation by which ppl at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, and judged to be disadvantaged in comparison w/the nation as a whole
emergent norm perspective
theory of collective behavior proposed by Turner and Killian that holds that a collective definition of appropriate and inappropriate behavior emerges during episodes of collective behavior
new social movements
an organized collective activity that addresses values and social identities, as well as improvements in the quality of ife
social movements
Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of individuals and/or organizations focused on specific political or social issues, in other words, on carrying out, resisting or undoing a social change.
rape shield provision
-aim of preventing a victim's sexual conduct from being used to discredit her testimony
human capital theory
the result of differences in the individual characteristics that worders bringto jobs
communism
state is the sole owner of the systems of production
*monogamy*
form of marriage where 1 man and 1 woman are married only to each other
vertical mobility
the movement of an individual from 1 social position to another of a different rank
The notion that anyone who works hard enough in the US can move “up” in society, to become economically comfortable or even rich and powerful. The reality is more complicated. Conflict theorists would describe The American Dream as an example of false
The American Dream
discrimination and immigrant happiness
Most immigrants are happy that they came to the US…… but they have observed discrimination against other immigrants.
*generalized other*
term used by Mead to refer to the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his/her behavior
Debt Bondage (slavery)
tied to one person b/c you owe someone a debt
Doesn't fit the true standards of causality
Mill's Indirect Method of Difference
What are DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS in the US?
latinos, mexican americans, jewish americans, white ethnics
Essentialist approach to understanding gender
gender results from the fact men and women are better suited for different tasks
what have sociologist found about gender and mobility?
1) effects on women's social standing and mobility not necessarily positive 2) movement of families to the cities weaken's women's ties to relatives
japan has more of what type of occupational structure than US?
more small shop owners (23 %)
Which of the following is NOT true, regarding Max Weber’s ideas on the structures of authority?
the three types of authority, as defined by Weber, are: rational-legal, traditional, multi- stage.
What are the 4 occupational fields of sociology majors?
1) social services 2) legal work 3) health care 4) government work
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