soc exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dalits
"Untouchables"
Pharaoh
Kings of ancient Egypt
!840-1860
"old" immigrants came from Northern&Western Europe spoke english and was protestant
what causes earth quakes
shifting plates
Homophobia
socially approved dislike of homosexuality
(sodhemy laws)
precedent
an example that must be followed
Propaganda
an organized program of publicity, selected info, etc used to propagate a doctrine, practice, etce.g. elections, going to war
panopticon. *
*self-social control.
- • Refers to a particular structure (physical setting). Drawing: center tower with a ring around it (ring holds prisoners). Guards in the center tower. This is an extremely efficient and effective design. Used in prisons. Often times the tower has one-way glass.
• Prisoners are put in a situation in which they feel that cant deviate because they always could be being watched. Don’t really even need a guard, just the idea that there could be a guard watching.
Postindustrial Societies(Daniel Bell)
technologically advanced, economic systems engaged in the processing and control of information
Populations
Are target groups from which researchers want to get information
craze
an exciting mass involvement that lasts for a relatively long period
Ecology
The study of how living organisms interact with the natural environment
Intragenerational mobility
the social movement (up/down) of individuals within their own life
Among persons convicted of ___________ in state courts, whites were less likely than African-Americans to be sent to prison.
drug felonies
social class
the social structural position a group holds relative to the economic, social, political, and cultural resources of society
Feminism
refers to advocating a mre just society for women
conflict theory
-characterized by tension and struggle -people are shaped by power, and authority-maintained through force-change takes place all the time and may have positive consequencesex. laws reinforce positions of those in power
who thought society had two faces?
Ralf Dahrendorf
*polygamy*
form of marriage where an individual may have several spouses
power
ability to exercise one's will over others
polygamy
the practice or condition of having more than one spouse, esp. wife, at one time.
Flaking
a process of shaping stone by chipping pieces off the edges
Impression management
process by which people control how others will perceive them
status inconsistency
rankings high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
Selected medical offenses
medical board has power(Doctors don't always know what they are doing)
social darwinism
the belief that those species of animals, including humans, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapt die out
Technological Change
automation taking the place of human labor
institutional discrimination
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
racism
the belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferrior
3 casual processes underlying environmental problems...
(1) Collective action failures
(2) Negative Externalities
(3) NIMBY
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 does not identify ______ as a protected characteristic, and as a result, it does not provide obese individuals direct protection against employer discrimination based on their ______
weight,
Cultural Relativism
Practice of judging a culture by its own standards
extended family
a family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children, all of whom live apart from other relatives
instrumentality
an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distinct goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions
evolutionary theory
a theory of social change that holds that society is moving in a definite direction
Doubling Time
The number of years it takes for a population to double in size.
Culture vs Instinct
an instinct is a pre wired social programming an individual is born with. culture is what is natural to us
how many are living on a dollar a day?
1.3 billion
Indus River
It is in North West india and was a prosperous urban civilization
How do catering companies manipulate and extract labor from workers according to Brian Halpin's guest lecture? What keeps the workers from doing anything about it?
Today’s economy lends to hiring temporary workers and laborization practices are a source of cost cutting. The workers are undocumented and the management uses scheduling tactics to keep up with fluctuating demand (change schedule around without telling the worker, so they put in work but don’t get paid). Undocumented workers put up with poor management because of (1) fear of deportation, (2) lack of job options, (3) a need for a job to survive. Workers are protected by labor laws but either don't know of them or aren't bold enough to take legal action.
*meade's theory of the self*
children view themselves as the center and develop the ability to be influenced by the people around them
Three major new characteristics to organized crime?
1. broader more global base for traditional criminal activity2. growth of transitional links between groups3. power, can undermine institutions.
what is problematic about crime statistics?
not as accurate as social scientists would like, but cited like reliable
What is the irony of resistance to society?
People are constantly resiting social norms, and consequently make their choices as an individual.

However, these choices still almost always follow the social norms
In the industrial 19th century U.S. , love was idealized as
the asexual love between mother and child
Staples: Just Walk on By-A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space:
he does stuff like hum Beethoven and wears suits to seem less threatening, walks further behind people
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
Ethnography
Piaget's stages
1.sensorimotor stage2.preoperational stage3.concreate operational stage4.formal operational stage
Gurus
Mystic leaders within Hindu religion
high SES
-corporate and white-collar crimes
periodic assemblies
recurring, relatively routine gatherings of ppl, such as a college class
Vedas
"knowledge"; sacred texts of the Aryans
Oppression
a relationship of domination and subordination in which the dominant group benefits from the systematic abuse, exploitation, and injustice directed toward a subordinate group3 forms:-internalized: directed at oneself-interpersonal: between individuals-institutional: built into and supported by institutions; where more oppression in the US starts
Counterfeit Intimacy
\"fake intimacy\"Ex: Strippers for money
endogamy
cultural norms prescribing that people marry within their social group or catagory
Causation
The relationship between cause and effect.
deviance
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
Immigration Inspection
medical exam, if healthy could enter
Michael and colleagues researched attitudes towards sex in the 1990s. They found that people could be grouped into three categories
traditonal, relational, recreational
Norms
rules or expectations in society (NOT LAWS)
Discriminaion
practices that single out some groups for different and unequal treatment
false consciousness
the class consciousness of subordiate classes who have internalized the view of the dominant class
manifest functions
functions of institutions are open, stated , conscious functions
Which theorist was used to understand the basic problem of the healthcare system?
marx
*industrial society*
society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services
hate crime
a criminal offense committed because of the offender's bias against a race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, or sexual orientation
ethnocentrism
the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture.
Surplus
an extra supply of something that is not needed immediatly
social exchange model
our interactions are determined by the rewards or punishments that we receive from others
The rule of the many by the few
oligarchy
cultural imperialism
the extensive infusion of one nation's culture into the other nations
Instrumental vs. Expressive gender roles
instrumental roles- authority
expressive roles- caregiver
*Jane Addams*
considered a founder of social work; created juvinile court system; fought against chicago school segregation; the Hull House
world systems analysis
Wallerstein's view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited
"Pull" Factor
reason that "attracts" you to a new land
Absolute Poverty
dont have enough water and food, no shelter
symbolic interactionist
society is the sum of the interaction of people and groupssociety is produced and reproduced through our interactions with eachother by means of language and our interpretations
juvenile delinquency
a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people
proletariat
Marx's term for the working class in a cpaitalist society
relative deprivation approach
the concious feeling of a negative discrepency between legitimate expectations and present actualities
Interlocking Corporate directorates
members of the board of directors of one corporation who also sit on the board of other corporations
What are the Core U.S. Values?
1. achievement and success
2. individualism
3. hard work
4. efficiency and practicality
5. science and technology
6. material comfort
7. freedom
8. democracy
9. equality
10. group superiority
11. education
12. religiosity
13. romantic love
Reingold and Wike -finding/argument?-
Georgia flag does not carry racial meaning
Welfare states can be divided into two types
programmatic welfare states and redistributive welfare states
Compare and contrast science-based and value-based approaches to food safety.
The science-based approaches are not free of values, and the value-based approaches also consider science”. The estimation of a risk is a scientific question. The acceptability of a given level of risk is a political question. Measures benefit/cost vs. dread/outrage.
what is the CONFLICT VIEW of multinational corporations?
multinational corporations have a negative impact on workers in both industrialized and nonidustrialized corporations
Who is the principal character/voice in the dialogue The Republi? Whose views are being expressed through this character?
Socrates is the principal voice but views are Plato’s.
Who discusses the modern man? What is the modern man's train of thought like?
Stark-only thinks rationally and relies primarily on scientific research and not on faith and religion
How have the demands of the fast food industry shaped potato production and the meat industry?
Before companies like McDonald’s started using an assembly line in the kitchen and making cheaper/faster products, potato production was essentially like any other vegetable. It was farmed normally and distributed to grocery stores and restaurants across America. The french fries were made from whole potatoes in the restaurant. Ray Kroc then switched to frozen french fries. This was because mass production of french fries became possible due to technological advances. The frozen french fries appealed to Kroc because they ensured uniformity and cut labor costs (could be produced in a factory rather than in the restaurant). French fries became the most profitable item on the menu.Now, fast food restaurants supply 90% of the 30 lbs/year of frozen french fries that Americans eat. There are only three main companies that produce and supply the bulk of frozen french fries (JR Simplot, Lamb Weston, McCain). They compete to have lower prices to market to fast food companies lowering wholesale costs and making the retail of french fries larger. However, the potato farmer only gets about $.02 of every $1.50 spent of french fries. (Try and drive down the prices, but the increasing productivity benefits the processors and fast food chains more) In the past 25 years, Idaho has lost about half of its potato farmers because it costs $1,500/acre to farm potatoes, so if you buy 400 acres you’re $1/2 million in the hole before you sell any potatoes. If you made $5 per hundred weight of potatoes, you’d make a profit but some years they only sell for $1.50/hundred weight. Oligopsony and fallacy of composition. Every cow is designed to be the same, raised in the same cheap way. This makes the meat cheaper for fast food restaurants and encourages meat producers to continue to produce as many cows without thinking of the consequences. Cattle farmers themselves don’t recieve adequate compensation for the amount of meat consumption that branches from the sale of meat in fast food restaurants.
Which of the following is more accurately reflected int he research on the impact of jobs that require travel or separation on marital success?
"Out of sight; out of mind." Travel required by jobs puts stress on marriages with highter liklihood of divorce...
Women are in what type of jobs? What percentage of real decision making positions are held by women?
lower white collar and service jobs; .3 %
1992
-legislative amendment
resocialization punishment of offenders into conformity
rehabilitation
Pericles
Famous great political figure, dominated Athenian politics, was an aristocrat, Took part in the democratic political structure.
functionalism
Durkheimhow everyone and everything function within societysociety is composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability within societyex: if families fail to discipline their children, schools, churches, and the courts must take up the slack
conformity
going along w/peers--individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior
Hannibal
Brilliant general from the Phoenician city of Carthage. Was able to watch his opponents fight, and find their weaknesses.
Racial “slurs,” a denigrating label applied to an ethnoracial group.
racial epithets
Traditionalist
Emphasize a narrow definition of family, one usually limited to relationships involving blood, marriage and or adoption
crime
behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms and other sanctions
stereotype
an unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences w/in a group
colonialism
the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period
excise
an internal tax imposed on the production, sale, or consumption of a commodity of the use of a service without a country
By the time the average American child reaches eithreen years of age he or she has watched hours of TV and has seen 350,000 commericals
22,000
Macrolevel analysis
focuses on social processes occurring at the societal level, especially in large scale organizations and major social institutions such as politics, government, and the economy.
minority group
any distinct group insociety that shares common group characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prehudice and diescrimination
Citizenship
Citizenship is a “hot topic” in sociology, e.g., Michigan’s own award-winning sociological theorist, Margaret (Peggy) Somers: Genealogies of Citizenship: Markets, Statelessness, and the Right to Have Rights.
monogamy
a marriage between 2 partners, usually a woman and a man
Of all articles published in five major sociology journals between 1965 and 1975, what percent were promarily concerned with some aspect of scoial stratification?
18%
second shift
the double burden--work outside the home followed by child care and housework--that many women face and few men share equitability
sexual harassment
behavior that occurs when work benefits are made contingent on sexual favors, or when touching, lewd comments, or the exhibition of pornographic material creates a "hostile environment" in the workplace.
sex ratio
the proportional distribution of the sexes in a population aggregate, expressed as the number of males per 100 females
Nestorians
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
Social Facts
social patterns that are external to individuals. (customs, social values)
life-course perspective
the study of changes in individuals' lives over time, and how those changes are related to historical events
Deviant Communities
maintain their own set of rules, norms, and values of deviance.
master status
the most important status that a person occupies
Low income youth are _________ more likely to drop out of high school than high income youth.
6 times
*in-group*
any group or category to which ppl feel they belong
What is primordialism? Who?
Espiritu-Explains ethnicity as it emerges and continues bc of tradition. Ppl enact their heritage bc of emotional attachment
intergenerational mobility
changes in the social position of children relative to their parents
Migrate
for a large group of people to move from one place to another to live
role exit
refers to the ending of a role, including the adjustments people make when that face not being what they formerly were
Counter culture
Term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day

Counterculture can also be described as deviating away form the norm of society, or what is perceived to be normal
One of the three steps to the revocation process in which a judge determines if there is probable cause for revoking the probation.
Prelimenary Hearing
*Marx's contribution to conflict perspective*
inequality results from class/economic divisions; rich vs. poor, rich control the means of production
ethnic group
a group that's set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
This act, regarded as the cornerstone of the federal welfare states, was composed of two components,k social insurance and socail assistance, and was funded by taxes from individuals and employers
1935 Social Security Act
Capitalism and its characteristics
System of wage labor an commodity production for sale, exchange, and profit rather than for the immediate need of the producer. Characteristics include economic motivation through profit, determination of prices and wages through supply and demand, absence of governmental intervention, and competition.
what have socioloist found about mobility in developing nations?
increasing disparaties between rural and urban areas
Socio-economic Status (social class or SES) is __________ correlated with marital success
positively (as SES increases, so does marital success)
Peter Berger was describing that mindset when he said,
“A sociologist is a person intensively, endlessly, shamelessly interested in the doings of [people].”
According to D'Emilio, why does capitalism discourage gayness?
Because capitalism needs people to reproduce, children are like property
collective behavior that is not a social movement:
crowds, panic, riots, fads, fashion, hystercal contagion, scapegoating
how do FUNCTIONALISTS UNDERSTAND GENDER?
men and women's roles create a balance in society
Article about how cultural objects (art) are interpreted according to the cultural frameworks of society at a given time.
Social class is a key factor in people's determination of the acceptability of the photographs (lower classes would view the pictu
Why is justice an issue for Plato?
It’s an issue because of all the injustice that was taking place at the time.
How does Niebuhr view the nation?
It is rare to find a nation where its most intelligent people are its leaders (Niebuhr).
Brahmin
wisdom, knowledge
Heterosexism
the institutionalization of heterosexuality as the only socially legitimate sexual orientation
Wazir
chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of Empire
Essentialism
Things have an indwelling, “essence” or identity.
Sexuality
Social construction that politicizes sex (Foucault)
Sumerians
They developed the cuneiform alphabet and their science helped develop the agriculture
Someone who has had gender reassignment surgery (a sex change).
transsexual
Dissociation
trying to dissociate with homo feelings but in turn signifies feelings
impression management
individual learns to slant presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences-a.k.a. dramaturgical approach
*norm*
an established standard of behavior maintained by a society
fashion
a pleasurable mass involvement that has a line of historical continuity
Millard Fillmore
American Party (Know Nothing Party) candidate of the US presidential election of 1856; nativist and anti-Catholic; ex-president and ex-Whig
Functionalism
interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole.
someone who would do anything to fulfil the norm
ritualist
rule creators
• People who create deviance by making or helping to make rules. This is where the rules and laws come from. Ex. Govt, MADD, religious groups.
RESEARCH:
an attempt to develop knowledge
based on the “Empirical” –
evidence from the real world
hidden curriculum
the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in rules, routines and regulations of schools
According to the mpls 'hot spot' patrol experiment..A. more than half of 911 calls come from only 3% of the 115,000 addresses B. all rapes came from less than 2%
Both
pulic
a dispersed group of ppl, not necessarily in contact w/one another, who share an interest in an issue
means of consumption
things that make consumption possible, consumer goods
modernity
The state or quality of being modern: "Warriors of the . . . tribe, imposing symbols of a nomadic culture . . . are caught between tradition and modernity"
Enlightenment
faith in the ability of human reason to solve societies problems
ideas, feelings, and ways of behaving that possess the remarkable property of existing outside the consciousness of the individual
social facts
What are mores?
Norms that are strictly enforced because they are though essential to core values or to the well-being of the group

Ex. Murder, rape, stealing, nudity
role expectation
a group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played
According to a study in 2003, Teen Magazine reported that what percentage of girls between the ages of 6-12 years old, had been on a diet?
35%
*dysfunction*
an element or process of a society that may disrupt the social system or reduce its stability
Cultural group
A group of people who share identifiable sets of meanings, symbols, values, and norms (Espiritu).
life chances
Weber's term for the opportunities ppl have to provide themselves w/material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
investors
a person who puts money into a project in order to earn a profit
institutional marriage
a marriage in which the emphasis is on male authority, duty, and conformity to social norms
Alienation and its various aspects
According to Marxian theory, alienation refers to the separation of things that naturally belong together. The proletariat experience alienation from: the product of their labor, the process of their labor, other workers, and from their Gattungswesen, or species being.
*face-work*
term used by Goffman to refer to the efforts ppl make to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrassment
closed system
social system where there is little or no possibility of social mobility
The Structural Functionalist Perspective
society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote stability;existence of social functions (consequences for a social pattern) -Manifest functions: recognized and intended consequences -Latent functions: unrecognized or unintended consequences (i.e. music from slavery, peanut butter) -Social dysfunctions: undesirable consequences (i.e. country divided by Civil War)
Your design is amenable to being:
qualitative
loosely structured, with evolving design and emerging variables
What is the difference between MANIFEST and LATENT FUNCTIONS?
MANIFEST: intended goal of organization. Ex: Reason for college is to get degree, education, etc. LATENT: unintended goals of a particular organization. Ex: Partying and drinking
The act that makes women battering a federal crime punishable by up to five years in prision to cross state line to do bodily harm to spouses or intimate partners. It also allows a state to prosecute stalkers and those subject to protective order as felo
Violence against Women Act
health care- Social Class
The lower the social status of the person or family, the less access they have to adequate health care.
Nearly 41 million Americans—14.5% of the population—have no health insurance.
what is the INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE on class diffrerences?
social class shapes a person's lifestyle
Per capita gross national income
measures the total output of goods and services produced by residents of a country each year

plus the income of non res sources divided by the size of population
What is problematic about the common sense approach to the study of society?
Common Sense is always socially defined
Simmels discussion of money's impct on the style of life is the growth of...
objective culture at the expense of individual culture
How Many of the Following Issues Does the Mass. Plan Address?
Unequal distribution of health care by race–ethnicity, social class, gender and region.
15-16% (some estimates as high as 29%) have no health insurance
20% GPs; 80% specialists
Inadequate health education of inner-city and rural parents.
High cost of health care
What are the pros and cons of cultural relativism?
It helps us to avoid cultural smugness but sometimes makes us question the quality of life in some cultures.

Should we really not judge cultures that practice female circumcision, gang rape, and wife beating?

Instead we should put them on a scale based on the quality of life they promote
Agents of socialization
Family
School
Peers
Media
Desire
physical attraction, emotional attraction, intellectual
Ethnomethodolgy
reality is socially constructed, action influences the meaning
Multiculturalism
The coexistence of several cultures int he same geographic area, whichout any one culture dominating another
C.Wright Mills, an important American socilogist, called individuals' lives_______, and used the term, ________- for the "lives" of societies.
biographies...history
latent function
an UNacknowledged, UNstated reason behind social actions
postmodern perspectives
the sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications
According to Gregory Fouts, what percentage of women in TV comedies are underweight?
75%
expressiveness
concern for the maintainance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family
world system
A long-term system of global interrelationships consisting of core, semi-periphery and periphery
postmodern
Of or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes: "It [a roadhouse]is so architecturally interesting . . . with its postmodern wooden booths and sculptural clock"
Arguments that suggest that human behavior is largely determined by biology/genetics.
Biological Determinism
in marxist theory, the major force that drives social change
conflict
Tax Violators
denial of injury, denial of responsbility
cultural universes
customs and practices that occur across all societies
Mealaosomes-
brown stuff that produces our skin, hair color
prestige
the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society
fad
a temporary pattern of behavior that involves large numbers of ppl and is independent of preceding trends
folkways
the ways of living, thinking, and acting in a human group, built up without conscious design but serving as compelling guides of conduct
Horatio Alger
wrote, "dime" novels (cheap), each one had "rags to riches" themes, appeaked to immigrants , gave them hope
Segregated marriages
ones in which husbands and wives controlled different sets of tasks
Stigma
a label given to one who constantly commits deviant acts
estate system
the ownership of property and the exercise of power is monopolized by an elite who have total control over societal resources
ceremony
activity done for a special purpose or event
1 of 3 concepts of parole, prisoner does not have the right to be released early, its a privelage.
Grace
class consciousness
Marx's view: a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political actions to bring about social change
nonperiodic assemblies
a nonrecurring gathering of ppl that often results from word-of-mouth info
social distance
the extent to which individuals or groups are removed from or excluded from participating in one another's lives
content analysis
a way of measuring by the cultural artifacts of what people write, say, see, and hear
I & Me. *
* self-social control.
- o Our “I” is our compulsive, creative, and spontaneous side.
• This is the part of us that want to act on impulse/on a whim
o Our “Me” is our normative, conformist, and orderly side. This side is mindful of social expectations.
• The “Me” is like the generalized other. Both mindful of social expectations.
o Remember this by: I → impulse and Me → expectations
science is objective,but social science is influenced by politics and values.
objectivity is accomplished through intersubjectivity
Calls to the police come on hot days at the hottest time
True
Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner...
-"Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution"
-The political value of scientific ambiguity
4 types of excuses:
- appeal to accidents excuse.
- appeal to defeasibility excuse
- Biological drives excuse.
- scapegoating exuse.
Miner: Body Rituals of the Nacirema -Cultural Relativism vs. ethnocentrism
Cultural relativism- understanding other cultures on their own terms
Ethnocentrism- using ones own culture as a standard by which other cultures are measured
resource mobilization approach
the ways in which a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel
Defenition of family and the difficulties of defining this term

As a social institution, the family is system that changes over time.
A family refers to a primary group of people (usually related to ancestry, marriage, or adoption) who form a cooperative economic unit to care for any offspring (and each other and who are committed to maintaining the group over time. 
Families are considered to be a type of kinship system
Goffman -definition of situation
- agreement about what is going in a specific situation
what ages are victims most victimizations
between the ages of twenty and twenty-four are most vulnerable that nearly all vitims of intimate violence are between the ages of sixteen and thirty-four
what is MERTON's theory of deviance?
people adapt in certain ways, either by conforming to or by deviating from such cultural expectations
Why is AIDS managed differently in other parts of the world?
It is perceived differently, in some areas it is very common, 1 in 4 adults test positive. Some countries like Mexico it is the \"gay disease\".
what are the 4 factors that impact mobility in the US?
1) occupational mobility 2) educaitonal mobility 3) race/ethnic mobility 4) gender mobility
how is race socially constructed?
ppl define a group as a race based in part on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors
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Term:
Definition:
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