Social psych Flashcards

Terms Definitions
MRI
Love
is a drug
implicit prejudice
unconsciously held prejudicial attitudes; also called automatic
polygraph
mechanical instrument that records physiological arousal from multiple channles; it is often used  as a lie-detector test
Culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
stanley milgram
obedience to authority; had participants administer what they believed were dangerous electrical shocks to other participants; wanted to see if Germans were an aberration or if all people were capable of committing evil actions
experimental research
controlled experiment to establish cause and effect
prosocial behaviors
actions intended to benefit others
Stress
Negative feelings and beliefs that arise when people feel unable to cope with their environment
Hooliganism
Negative sterotype about how people behave in crowds at sporting events especially apply to incident soccer fans.
misattribution
mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source
Controlled Processing
"Explicit" thinking that's deliberate, reflective, and conscious.
self-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Internal Locus of Control
(ILOC)
Individual assumes personal resbonsibility for life events
(originating point comes from within)
 
ILOC related to high parental expectations and autonomy in childhood
 
ILOC-> high levels of education and GPA
communal relationships
relationships in which the individuals feel a special responsibility for one another and give and recieve according to the principle of need; such relationships are often long term
dispensibility
believing you have less to contribute to overall task
Cognitive Dissonance
putting effort into joinging an unattractive group may increase group commitment
effect-danger ratio
a principle suggesting that in situations in which they interact frequently with potential victims, most people try - when engaging in aggression - to maximize the harm they produce while minimizing the danger of retaliation
serotonin
the 2 biochemical factors most closely related to aggression are testosterone and this neurotransmitter
stereotype
A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information.
mode
a measure of central tendency; the most frequent score in a distribution of scores
Distinctiveness
Does person behave differently in this situation than in others?
fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon other's behavior
Compliance:
A change in behavior in accordance with a direct request
Social Representation
socially shared beliefs- widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. our social representations help us make sense of our world.
primacy effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
structure of attitudes
- The cognitive component- What you think or what beliefs you hold about the attitude object. Positive or negative.- The affective component- The emotional, feeling, reaction to the attitude object.- the behavioral component- how you act or behave towards the attitude object (ie avoiding etc.,)
social identity
reflects the broader social groups to which we belong -- each social identity is associated with a range of attributes that characterize the prototypical group member
central (systematic) route
a persuasive route; people think carefully and deliberately about the content of a message, attending to its logic, cogency, and arguments, as well as to related evidence and principles
groupthink
mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Evolutionary theory
theory of sexuality asserting that sex drive has been shaped by natural selection and that its forms thus tend to be innate
instrumental aggression
aggression in which the primary goal is not to harm the victim but rather attainment of some other goal - for example, access to valued resources
Escaping the Self
underlying issue that leads to suicide
attachment theory
a theory about how our early attachments with our parents shape our relationships for the remainder of our lives
Illusion of Transparency
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
secure attachment
Attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy.
Passionate love-
is intense longing, and is often accompanied by physiological arousal
social categorization
the process by which people organize their social environment by categorizing themselves and others into groups
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other pp's behavior is called the
fundamental attribution error
Theory of Planned Action
Use measurement of attitudes, social pressure and control to find an individual’s intention to behave. The intention to behave is the best predictor to behavior
BIGR (bask in reflected glory)
the increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful
Bandura (1961)
IV: children exposed or not exposed to adults aggresion against bobo dol-children who observed the aggressive role model were more likely to attack bobo doll
Cognitive interview techniques
recall every detail from the event w/out interruption
Propinquity Effect
The more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends and lovers
matched pairs design
a method of assigning subjects to groups in which pairs of subjects are first matched on some characteristic and then individually assigned randomly to groups
placebo group
in drug research, a group given an inert substance to assess the psychological effect of receiving treatment
Problems (said Freud)
Problem #1: Social contact stimulates Eros.In adults, this is expressed by the desire for sex.And it is expressed by the desire for more sex.Problem # 2: Social contact stimulates ThanatosThe Death instinctThe desire to find death.
external validity
the degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations
self serving biased
over attribute our bad behavior to external and our good behavior to internal
self fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
aggression and cultural factors
beliefs, norms and expectations in a given culture can influence aggresion
What % of couples have sex more than 3 times a week?
8%
What is “beautiful is good stereotype”?
-This stereotype differs between eastern and western cultures. -When looking at “beautiful” people:Easterners – are likely to assign traits to them such as integrity and concern for othersWesterners – are likely to assign traits to them such as personal strength and interdependence.-In both cultures, physically attractive people are seen as having more characteristics that are valued in that culture
Some Requirements for Being “Social Animals”
Must recognize fellows, “friends”Must want to be with them, from “herd instinct” to “need to belong”Coordinate action. Mimicry, cooperationHow to resolve disputesCompetitive ambition, dominanceSelf-control (follow rules)Rivals, alliancesPossibly a longer learning phase (childhood), which requires more nurturance from adults
correlational coefficient

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




a statistical measure of the strength and direction of the
association between two variables


Negative Affect Theory: Who and what?
BaronSome behaviors are exclusive- engaging in one behavior precludes engaging in the opposite behavior)Humor incompatible w/aggression therefore should decrease aggression
self-evaluation maintenance model
what we do when we are faced with someone whose success has implications for our own self-esteem
why do people join groups?
1. information- we learn info from groups


need for accuracy/informational social influence
you have access to more info
2. identity- we identify with groups to get some of our self concept

social identity theory: we join groups bc its a way we define ourselves.
need to be liked/normative social influence


3. to get things done: more people working on thinks is more efficient
divide the labor
Memory-Based Model of Impression Formation
if you're focused on something else you have to think more to make a judgment at the time of retrieval rather than during the actual time of receiving info.
diff. b/w conformity and compliance
conformity- act to other ppls beliefs with out them asking you to compliance- ppl request that we act a certain way
correctly interpret an event as an emergency
may only have limited infoembarrassing to interpret a sit. wrong
sociocultural model
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 








 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




how and why people are influenced by their social
environment, interested in social group membership and actions based in sociocultural
web


How do men, women, and people from Asian cultures define themselves – in general?
-Western culture has a more independent view of the self (judges things in terms of one’s own feelings)-Eastern culture has a more interdependent view of the self (judges things in terms of relating to other people)-Women in general show more interdependence then men.
What is prejudice? What is a stereotype? What is discrimination?
-Prejudice is ubiquitous: in one form or another, it affects us all.-Any group can be a target of prejudice-Against nationality, gender, sexual orientation, religion, etc.-Simple dislike of a group can be relentless and escalate to extreme hatred.-Stereotype – “The little pictures we carry around inside our heads”-Based on schemas, conscious and non-conscious.-Cognitive process, does not necessarily lead to intentional acts of abuse.-When we fail to recognize individual differences, people treated differently as a result-Discimination – An unjustified negative or harmful action toward the members of a group simply because of their membership in that group.-Many forms of discrimination are banned in the workplace, however homosexuality is not one of them.-Our tendency to categorize and group information causes prejudice
separation
native culture
double blind procedure
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its memebers
Social Loafing
reduced effort/motivation when individuals work in groups instead of alone
Teasing
provoking statements that call attention to the targets flaws and imperfections.
outgroup
"them", thoes perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup
common sense
what everyone can plainly see
aggression
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. In laboratory experiments, this might mean delivering electric shock or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings.
Facial Expressions
anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust. Facial expressions are consistent across most cultures
Job satisfaction
Attitudes individuals hold concerning their jobs.
primacy effect
the tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact on impressions than information presented later
Counterfactual Thinking
Imagining alternate scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
-we do well-learned tasks better and unmastered tasks worse
Disadvantages of using schemas
remembering what didnt happen
confirmation bias
self-fulfilling prophecy
reciever characteristics
characteristics of the person who recieves the message, including age, mood, personality, and motivation to attend to the message
Evolutionary Psychology:
genetic survival rather than survival of the individual*males aggress to establish dominance
Altruistic personality
cluster of traits that predisposes individuals to behave prosocially
empathy-altruism hypothesis
the suggestion that some prosocial acts are motivated solely by the desire to help someone in need
field study
An experiment conducted in natural, real-life settings, outside the lab
filler items
items included in a questionnaire measure to help disguise the true purpose of the measure
Procedural Justice
Judgements concerning the fairness of the procedures used to distribute available rewards among group members.
Social Neuroscience
An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors
self-fulfilling prophecy
the process by which one's expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations
shared goals
cooperative action when problems must be solved by a group, even if the two groups typically do not agree
Deception
In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed/misled about the study's methods and purposes.
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
Social Trap
When a group of people excessively obtain short-term benefits and not focus on the long-term losses for the group.
dispositional attribution
any explanation that locates the cause as being internal to the person (personality, mood, attitudes, abilities, effort)
attitude
an evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes the three elements of affect, cognition, behavior
Illusory Correlation
the tendency to see a correlation between two events when in reality, no such association exists
Strong feelings of longing, desire and excitement towards a person (this starts a relationship)
Passionate love
Reciprocal Liking
Just knowing that someone likes us fuels our attraction to the person.
order effect
in a repeated measures design, the effect that the order of introducing treatment has on the dependent variable
social beliefs
beliefs about the roles, duties, and obligations we assume in groups
Self-Monitoring
Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression.
Looking-glass self
We learn to see ourselves by internalizing how others see us
 
ex. mom says "you are a stubborn little boy"= boy thinks he is stubborn
reduce obedience
1 - dissenters (one experimenter says stop) authority is ambiguous - 18/20 stop that second (150V) 2 stop at next shock, 2 embarrassment - when experimenter not in room only 22.5% continue to end, 3 distance from victim - when you have to hold their hand down on shock plate only 12/40 30% go all the way to the end
Sometimes the basis for one's beliefis discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives.Social psychs refer to this as:
Belief perserverance
Middlemist (1976)
Looker at how long men urinated with others around them compared to being alone. Found out that people become aroused when in the presence of others.
facial feedback hypothesis
the hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion
informational social influence
when a group influences our opinions or perceptions of reality
Excitation transfer theory
arousal produced in one situation can intensify emotional reactions occuring in later situations
Evolutionary Psychology (5)
The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection
"Just World" attitude
This term was coined to describe individ diffs in the tendency to think of life as "fair"
ceiling effect
failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too easy
Problem with studying psychology
The things psychologist study are invisible, not able to be observed.Ever “seen” any of the following?Self-esteemNeuroticismAn attitudePower
social perception
a general term for the process by which people come to understand one another
Hostile Attribution Bias
Tendency to perceive hostile intent in others
amygdala: associalted w/ aggressive behaviors
-when stimulated docile animals become violent-when blocked violent animals become docile-modified by social facors
After being rejected people have...
a higher pain tolerance (suggestion that these two systems are connected b/n emotional and physical pain)
What is the difference between informational social influence and normative social influence? When does this lead to private acceptance and public compliance?
-Informational Social Influence – The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior. We conform because we believe that other’s interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more accurate than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action. An important feature of informational social influence is that it can lead to private acceptance. -Private acceptance – Conforming to other people’s behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right.-Normative Social Influence – The influence of other people that leads to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them; this type of conformity results in public compliance with the group’s beliefs and behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance of those beliefs and behaviors.
Animals and Their Environment
All animals need things from their environmentThey are built to be able to get these thingsFind food (nose, eyes; hunger)Extract nutrients from food (teeth, digestion)Avoid predators (nose, ears; fear)Reproduce (desire for pleasure, sex organs)
voir dire

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




the pretrial examination of prospective jurors by the judge
or opposing lawyers to uncover; questions potential jurors are asked to allow
lawyers to select a jury that they think is fair (not biased)


Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink’s (2002)- Shooter bias
(speed)
-participants view photos of armed and unarmed black and white men (independent variables)
-must decide to "shoot" or "not shoot" as quickly as possible
-dependent variable: speed to respond accurately; errors (shooting unarmed person or not shooting armed person)
Results: ppl were faster to shoot black person when armed than armed white person. Made decision to not shoot the white unarmed person faster than black unarmed person. ppl made more errors in that they were more likely to NOT shoot armed white person and more likely to shoot black unarmed person than white unarmed person
*shows how ppl's schemas affect accuracy
belief in a just world
the belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people to disparage victims
type B behaviour pattern
A pattern consisting of the absence of characteristics associated with the type A behaviour pattern
attribution and just world hypothesis
blame the victim to avoid thinking that the world is not fair.
Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: Stigma
An attribute that serves to discredit a person in the eyes of others
Newlyweds have sex ________ during their first year together and ________ during their 2nd year together
18 times a month;9 times a month
Social Roots of Prejudice: Ingroup Bias
Tendency to focus on positive aspects of one's own group
What is the idea behind the College Life Stress Inventory – what is the main weakness of drawing correlations between health and stressful events?
-To catalog stress between different college events, then total them and reflect upon an average score.-Problems: Subjective situations have more impact on people than objective ones-individuals vary in response to different situations-Most studies on stress effects use correlational findings, not experimental.
What are the different kinds of leaders? When are they most effective (e.g., contingency theory of leadership)?
-Great Leader Theory – The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation-Leaders tend to be more intelligent, extraverted, confident, charismatic, socially skilled, driven for power, open to new experience, less neurotic-Different types of leaders:Traditional Leaders – leaders who set clear, short term goals and reward people who meet themTransformational Leaders – Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common long term goals-Contingency theory of leadership: 2 basic leader typesTask-oriented leader: A leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with feelings and relationships.Strong in: High control work situations (leader-subordinate relationships are excellent, work clearly defined) Low control work situations (leader-subordinate relationships are poor, work not clearly defined)Relationship-oriented Leader: A leader who is concerned primarily with works feelings and relationships.Strong in: Moderate control work situations, the wheels are turning smoothly but some attention to poor relationships and feelings is needed.
baby-face hypothesis
restriction of range
social control
power of the situation
Distress-enhancing attribution
unhappy couples' tendencyexternal factors for good behaviorinternal factors for bad behavior
reliability
are the results obtained consistent?
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
successful
self enhancing bias, attributing our success to internal characteristics
Status
an individual's position/rank w/in a group
Self Esteem
overall positive or negative evaluation of the self
1. Self-knowledge
Self-concept= information and beliefs we have about who we are
Although they are distinct techniques, the foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face, low-balling, and that's-not-all techniques are similar in that they all involvea)starting with a small request and subsequently raising the costs. b)normativ
c)two steps
Defensive Pessimism
Adoptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing ones anxiety to motivate effective action.
attitude(s)
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events
correlation coefficient
quantifies the relationship between 2 variables
equity theory
people are motivated to pursue fairness (equity) in their relationships, with rewards/costs shared roughly equally among individuals
group polarization
enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
Subjective Stress
People’s construals of their stress levels. Has more impact on people than objective situations
frustration-aggression
consistent w this theory, the Hutus aggressed against the Tutsis perhaps in part of b/c of a failing economy, and Tutsi oppression of Hutus in years past
6 basic emotions
happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, digust
decision making
processes involved in combining and integrating available information to choose one out of several courses of action.
Behavioral conformation
A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.  
nonverbal behavior
behavior that reveals a person's feelings without words - through facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues
behavioral confirmation
people's own actions toward an out-group individual creates a context in which the individual will produce behaviors consistent with the stereotype
Pure Altruism
actions that benefit others, with no external or internal personal gains
social psychology
a scientific field that examines how the behavior, feelings, and thoughts of individuals are influenced by the real imagined or implied presence of others
thought suppression
avoid thinking about something we want to forget; requires effortful, conscious attention to something else
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
a theory that describes attitude change as occurring in order to reduce the unpleasant arousal people experience when they engage in a behavior that conflicts with their attitude or when they hold two conflicting attitudes
Unrequited love:
situation in which one person loves another but the other does not return that love
Social Learning Theory
We learn social behavior (e.g., aggression) by observing others and imitating them.
transformational leadership
Leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence.
contingencies of self-worth
an account of self-esteem maintaining that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures in domains upon which a person has based his or her self-worth
central tendency
a single number or value that describes the typical or central score among a set of scores
Spontaneous trait inference
An effortless, automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone’s behavior.
between subjects experiment

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


performance
on different subjects compared to different conditions
social role
a socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person when functioning in a given setting or group
In 1969, social psych All wicker completed a review of dozens of research studies and concluded that ppl's expressed attitudes__predicted their varying behaviors
Hardly Ever
Availability Heuristic
Tendency to base a judgement on the availability of information in memory
 
Ex. Are there more words that start with R, than ones that have R as third letter?
 
Going to NYC more worried about being mugged then in a car wreck
Impression Management Theory
a theory that individuals are not motivated to be consistent, but rather to appear consistent
Expressed reasons for romantic rejection:
Specific, external, unstable"it's not you, it's me""I can't go out with you b/c i have work"
Self-Exchange Theory (12)
The theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs.
pluralistic ignorance
"Nobody else was rushing to send in their troops"- what concept from the helping research does this quote, by a U.S. official speaking about Rwanda, reflect?
Kelley's ANOVA model
normative model used to make an attribution the perciever compares observed behavior to:1.other actors (consensus)2.other situations (consistency)3.other stimuli (distinctiveness)
Problems with correlation
Dogs improve well-being: Having dogs is associated with self-esteem.- Reverse causality:Ice cream and homicide: As ice cream sales go up, so do murder rates.- Third variable problem
Group think-
each member of the group attempts to conform his or her opinions to what they believe to be the consensus of the group
Excitation Transfer Theory:
Arousal generated in one context may transfer & intensify a subsequent emotional state.
Public Good Dilemma
A type of social dilemma where people choose how much they want to contribute to interest that will benefit the entire group.
Latane, Williams, & Harkins (1979)
male college student volunteers asked to cheer as loudly as possibleIV: size of groupDV: amount of noise producedresults + group size +overall noise+groupsize - individual noise
the need to belong
We want to form relationships with others (does not need to be romantic)-we want them to be frequent and consistent over time-it is a basic need.
Fundamental Attribution Error
This error occurs b/c we tend to underestimate the influence of situational factors on the actions of others
Common sense doesn't state when...
behavior will occur. For example, contradicting proverbs.Too many cooks in the kitchen spoil the broth OR Two heads are better than one.You can’t teach an old dog new tricks OR You’re never too old to learn.Absence makes the heart grow fonder OR Out of sight, out of mind.
control condition

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


–
level of the independent variable that is left alone
Gender and non-verbal communication
who is better ate decoding nonverbal cues, men or women? and who is better at encoding nonverbal information? many studies have found that women are better at both encoding and decoding
-but men are better at detecting lies
*social role theory: the theory that sex differences in social behavior are due to society's division of labor between the sexes; this division leads to differences in gender-role expectations and sex-typed skills, both which are responsible for the differences in men's and women's social behavior
downward social comparison
if we want to boost our ego we use...
3 Basic Motives Toward Prosocial Behavior (Helping Others)
1.An instinctive reaction to promote the welfare of those genetically similar to us (evolutionary psychology) to learn social norms of helping2.Rewards outweigh the costs, so helping is in our self-interest (social exchange theory)3. Feelings of empathy and compassion for a victim prompt helping (the empathy-altruism hypothesis).
Great Person Theory of Leadership
The view that leaders posses certain traits that set them apart from other people and that are possed by all leaders no matter where or when they live.
Internal vs. external attributions
-humans are motivated by the need to PREDICT and CONTROL the environment (attributions allow us to do this)
-INTERNAL (located within the person or object) vs. EXTERNAL (located in the environment) causes
When is matching hypothesis violated?
Women tend to put priority on wealth, security, and safety more than attractiveness (Donald Trump & wife)
What was the first experiment by Triplett, and why it is important?
first time social behavior was systematically studied in the lab (important!)
-triplet noticed that bicycle racers were faster in competition than when riding alone
hypothesis: presence of others enhances performance
study: children asked to reel in fishing line as quickly as they can (alone or in the presence of others)
findings: alone=43.6 sec group=39.5 sec
What did Sherif do in his experiments to both induce prejudice and then decrease it?
-Once hostility and distrust were established, simply removing a conflict and the competition did not restore harmony-Bringing two competing groups together in neutral situations actually increased hostility and distrust.-When contact reduces prejudice: Six conditions:1) Mutual interdependence2) Common goal3) Equal Status4) Friendly, informal setting5) Knowing multiple out group members6) Social norms of equality are present.
What is a construal? What needs influence the way we construe situations?
A. Construal is the way in which we perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social worldB. It is not enough to say we simply construe situations based on a person’s behaviors. Our past experiences and current goals influence the way we construe situations as well. Naiive realism – the conviction we have that we perceive things as they really are.
indirect aggression
rumoursgossipexclusion
illusion
perceptual misinterpretations, fantasies, constructed beliefs
chameleon effect
unconsciously mimicking others' expressions, postures, and voice tones helps us feel what they are feeling
These couples have physical/emotional satisfaction...These couples have more effort...
married;single
proximity
Geographical nearness. (More pecisely, "functional distance") powerfully predicts liking.
psychology
science of behavior and mental processes
self-discrepancy theory
the match/mismatch between our self-concept and how we want to see ourselves
social comparison
Evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others.
Origins of Self-Knowledge
IntrospectionLooking Glass Self *Social Comparison ** more social, involve other people
Zimbardo
interested in proving power of situation, subjects with no violent background, guards get progressively more violent - slippery slope. degredation and deindividuation - cant see eyes they have sunglasses, guards are helpful, some do nothing, and some are brutal. bad guards are the ones noticed people think its okay (pluralistic ignorance) zimbardo gets caught up, unethical and ethical, power of the situation has way too much control
Dual Attitudes
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
Gestalt psychology
school of psychology that emphasized the perception of whole figures rather than the individual elements of conscious experiences. thought of by Max Wertheimer
Circadian Rhythm Study
rely on shortcuts (stereotypes) morning people are more likely to stereotype in the evening. Evening people are more likely to stereotype in the morning. Court situation with athlete
ideomotor action
the phenomenon whereby merely thinking about a behavior makes its actual performance more likely
loneliness
having a smaller or less satisfactory network of social and intimate relationships than one desires
Gottman's Relationship killers:
"Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse"Contempt (treating other wrong for character while you think you are perfect)DefensivenessCriticismStonewalling (ignoring them)
Categorization
Simplifies how we look at the world—basic cognitive mechanism
experience-sampling studies
studies in which researchers provide participants with beepers and randomly signal them throughout the day so that the participants will provide information about what they are doing and how they are feeling at that precise moment
Negativity Bias
we may give negative/undesirable info more weight
availability heuristic
the tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind
Tragedy of the Commons
Individuals acting indepdently in their own self-interest can ultimately destroy a common shared resource even though it is not their actual plan.
self- schemata
stuff about yourself, we have multiple schemata, have emotional connections
external attribution (covariation model)
high consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency
obedience
Acting in accord with a direct order or command.
3 Components of Prejudice
•Affect—emotion linked with the attitude (e.g., anger, warmth) and the extremity of the attitude (e.g., mild uneasiness, outright hostility)•Cognition—beliefs or thoughts (cognitions) that make up the attitude•Behavior—relating to actions—people usually act on their attitudes
conflict
What area of social psych is most likely being studied if the researchers are using the Prisoners Dilemma Game?
distinctiveness hypothesis
the hypothesis that we identify what makes us unique in each particular context, and we highlight that in our self-definition
frequency polygons
a graphic display of a frequency distribution in which the frequency of each score is plotted on the vertical axis, with the plotted points connected by straight lines
Consensus Information
Do others behave similarly in this situation?
Milgram
obedience, who will shock all the way to 450V. 26/40 65% all the way, even though learner screams stop. why? slippery slope. objectivity/authority of experimenter
Benefits/problems with the correlational method
correlational method: the technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed (like how much one can be predicted from the other)
the correlational method only tells us that two variables are related, but it cannot indicate causality and social psychologists want to know the cause of something
Charles Darwin
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
-The first person to scientifically study emotion
-Facial expressionas are universal and instinctive
-Expressions evolved from animal emotions and expressions
-Have survival value
-Insanity= promitive stage of emotional development (insane emotion cause by poor blood circulation in brain)
agenda control
efforts of the media to select certain events and topics to emphasize, thereby shaping which issues and events we think are important
Subliminal Persuasion
a type of persuasion that occurs when stimuli are presented at a very rapid and unconscious level
Overexposure
if you didn't like it the 1st time, then exposure to it over and over again makes it worse
Equal-Status Contact (13)
Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those or equal status.
illusion of control
research shows that peeps that suffer from this tendency think their actions can influence things that are really completely random
reversal design
a single case design in which the treatment is introduced after a baseline period and then withdrawn during a second baseline period. It may be extended by adding a second introduction of the treatment. Sometimes called a "withdrawal design"
1. Looking Inside: Introspection
Examine own mindAssumes we have privileged (direct) access to our inner statesNot exactly the most reliable or accurate.
Consummate love
is the only type of love that includes all three components--intimacy, passion and commitment.
Stereotype Content Model:
A model proposing that relative status & competition between groups influence group stereotypes along the dimensions of competence & warmth
Four Goals of Social Behavior
1. Genetic and Material Resources2. Social Status3. Managing Self Image4. Managing mood and emotions
in reality, shift goes in direction of:
the groups initial preference
presence of others and phisiological arousal
 
evaluation apprehension
concern about being judged
 
simple tasks: can lead to greater effort. if people are evaluating you on something youre good at, you can show off.
bystander effect
This is the name given to describe the lack of helping by eyewitnesses, esp when there are many of them
Construal (a way we differ)
Difference in how we interpret (construe) situationsExample:Nervous vs. Confident College Professors
internal validity

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


–
the degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent
variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent
variables
Describe the secure attachment style.
Parents are nurturing and sensitively responsive to the needs of the infant. Children believe that they are worthy of being loved and people can be trusted.
social learning perspective on aggression
we learn aggression by observing and imitating others and by being rewarded/punished for aggression
Cultural factors in Attribution error
More common or stronger in cultures that emphasize individual freedom- Individualistic cultures such as those in Western Europe or the US and Canada, than in collectivitic cultures
Common Criticism: Is social psych simply common sense?
Common sense knowledge is not critically analyzedExamples - Old wives’ talesReading in the dark will ruin your eyesThe more you cut your hair, the faster it grows
Steps of a scientific investigation
1. identify what you want to understand
2. develop a theory
3. develop a specific hypothesis
4. design a study and collect data
real groups are distinguished from aggregations by:
Interdependence- rely on each other to reach shared goals
 
Group identity- individuals perceive themselves as belonging together
 
Group structure- expectations held by the group for how members in particular positions ought to behave (ex.: fraternities and sororities, teams, clubs)


 
Ambady & Rosenthal (1993)- thin slice judgments
-participants view 10 sec silent videos of college teachers
-teachers rated for competence, warmth, etc.
-do these 10 sec judgments predict end-of-semester student evaluations? YES
-results: difference between judge ratings and course evaluations-competence=.57, confident=.82, enthusiastic=.75 likable=.73 and warm=.67
-judgments based on 30 sec predict teacher effectiveness
-what about shorter exposures 3 2sec clips? still high correlations, competence=.57, confident=.62, enthusiastic=.61, likable=.73, warm=.54
Be able to compare how social psychology differs from sociology and personality psychology.
- Other social sciences are more concerned with broad social, economic, political, and even historical factors that influence events in a given society or group. (Ex. Poverty/crime rates amongst homeless women)-For the social psychologist, the level of analysis is in the individual in the context of the social situation-Personality psychologists study how individuals are different, while social psychology studies what people have in common.
What is the bystander effect? Know the steps that people take before helping.
-Bystander effect – The greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help the victim.-Steps people take before helping: (what causes failure to help)1) Notice the event – (Distracted/In a hurry) -> Fail to notice2) Interpret the event as an emergency – (Pluralistic ignorance) -> Interpret as a nonemergency)3) Assume Responsibility – (Diffusion of responsibility) -> Fail to assume personal responsibility4) Know appropriate form of assistance – (Lack of knowledge/Lack of competence) -> Can’t offer appropriate help5) Implement decision – (danger to self/legal concerns/embarrassment) -> Costs of helping too high
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