Social Psychology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Schitzophrenia
1. Conflicts become irresovable 2. Fragmentation of the mind into a million pieces. 3. People inside your head scream and torment you. 4. "Wall of Terror" b/w self and goal.
outgroup
"them" -- those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
equity
a condition in which people recieve from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Emil Krapelin
A psychiatrist that discovered 9 new disorders. 40%-90% range
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Bi-Polar Disorder
2 Phases 1. Depressive Phase 2. Mania Phase A constant flip b/w these two. Treatments: Lithium Salts.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Depression : Brain Damage
Loss Of Synapses, Loss of Dendidritic Spinal Fluid.
GRIT
Acronym for “graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction”—a strategy designed to de-escalate international tensions.
1. According to social-exchange theory, we are by nature altruistic.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
The chapter Prologue describes how Fern labeled the man sitting on the steps with a cup in his hand as “homeless” on the basis of very limited information, which led her to make an embarrassing mistake. This is one disadvantage of using:A)social cate
A)social categories.
3. Sigmund Freud theorized that human nature has within it a death instinct.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
Mirror-image perceptions
Reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict; for examples, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.
12. Children who regularly viewed Mister Rogers' Neighborhood were subsequently more                     A)        aggressive.             B)        helpful and cooperative.             C)   
            B)        helpful and cooperative.
9. Physically attractive people tend to be more outgoing and more gender-typed.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
2. Correlational research indicates that as pornography has become more widely available, the rate of reported rape has             A)        increased.             B)        decreased.             C) 
  A)        increased.
8. When engaging in social comparison, we tend to compare downward.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
4. Among nations whose economic levels have reached a level sufficient for survival, increasing affluence predicts             A)        proportional increases in happiness.             B)        large increases in
            C)        nothing about happiness.
13. Mary, a talkative, extroverted, young woman, is strongly attracted to Ronald, a quiet, introverted, middle-aged man. Mary's attraction to Ronald would be best explained by             A)        exchange theory.          
            D)        the complementarity hypothesis
4. Compared to prisoners convicted of nonviolent crimes, those convicted of unprovoked violent crimes tend to             A)        be first-borns.             B)        have authoritarian attitudes.        
            D)        have higher testosterone levels
8. Sales of sexually explicit magazines show no relationship to rape rates.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
_____ is any behavior that helps another person, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.A)DeindividuationB)Prosocial behaviorC)AltruismD)Ethnocentrism
B)Prosocial behavior
The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance is called:A)social facilitation.B)social loafing.C)the self-serving effect.D)the bystander effect.
A)social facilitation.
8. Conflicts often contain only a small number of truly incompatible goals.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
7. Economist Robert Frank used the principles of social psychology to develop a proposal to limit consumption by implementing             A)        universal flow training.             B)        affluence rollbacks.
            C)        consumption taxes.
2. Since the 1950s, the percentage of American who say they are "very happy" has             A)        more than doubled.             B)        increased slightly             C)        fallen to n
            D)        decreased slightly.
6. Daily showers have gone from being a luxury unavailable to most Americans in the 1950s to being a necessity for the majority of Americans today.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
3. Sherif used arbitration to reduce conflict in the boys' summer camp.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
12. Some years ago, a mysterious student enveloped in a big, black bag began attending a speech class at a state university. Although the teacher knew the "Black Bag's" identity, the other students did not. As the semester progressed, the students' atti
            A)        exposure breeds liking.
3. State sales rates of sexually explicit magazines such as Hustler and Playboy were positively correlated rates of _____ in the same state.             A)        divorce             B)        unemployment     
            C)        rape
1. Reward theory states that             A)        rewards foster romantic but not companionate love.             B)        companionate love is fostered by long periods of separation.             C)  
            D)        we like those people who are associated with rewarding events.
When Raphael was in the elevator, he couldn't help but notice a man and a woman in conversation. He decided that the woman in the suit was probably a college administrator and the gray-haired man in the glasses was probably a professor. Raphael was engage
D)social categorization.
18. The role of models in the acquisition of aggression is emphasized most strongly by _________________ theorists.             A)        psychoanalytic             B)        catharsis             C)  
            C)        social learning
11. According to the text, the fact that people from Hong Kong feel more fearful on their city streets than do people from Toronto may be due to the fact that Hong Kong             A)        has a higher average temperature.     
            D)        is more densely populated.
Social learning theory
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished.
14. Controlled experiments on the effects of exposure to violent pornography indicate that it             A)        has little effect on the viewer.             B)        increases punitive behavior toward women.
B)        increases punitive behavior toward women.
15. A stranger rides the same bus you do to school every day. According to the "mere-exposure effect," as the days pass you will come to view the stranger             A)        as merely another student.             B)  
            D)        more favorably.
7. When we feel guilty we are more likely to help those around us.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
13. Which of the following best illustrates a superordinate goal?             A)        a college student who has been failing English gets an "A" on a paper             B)        a woman beats her husband at tennis
C)        apartment dwellers install a television antenna they can all use
Equal-status contact
Contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should be between persons equal in status.
_____ is to how we interpret the meaning of other people's behavior as _____ is to how our behavior is affected by situational factors and other people.A)Social facilitation; prosocial behaviorB)In-group bias; out-group biasC)Social cognition; social infl
C)Social cognition; social influence
12. The "Kennedy experiment" was an application of ___________________________ to international tension reduction.             A)        equal status contact             B)        the jigsaw technique       
  C)        the GRIT model
In Milgram's original obedience study, what was the voltage level at which some participants first refused to continue shocking the learner?A)At the 45-volt level, the level at which the “sample” shock was given to the teacher.B)At the 150-volt level,
C)At the 315-volt level, which was labeled “Extreme Intensity Shock.”
14. Lana just received a prestigious prize for her investigative reporting and, as a result, the newspaper she works for gave her a raise. Compared to how happy she was at her old salary, Lana's level of happiness with her new salary is likely to be  
B)        higher for a while, and then decline to normal levels.
In a series of experiments, Stanley Milgram systematically varied the conditions of his obedience study. Under which of the following conditions were subjects LEAST likely to continue administering shocks to the full 450-volt level?A)when the teacher and
D)when the teacher observed two other teachers who refused to continue with the experiment
statistical significance
Physiological-testosterone
high testosterone=more aggression, more tattoos
personal control
1) correlate
2) experiment
Milgram
researcher famous for teacher-learner study on obedience to authority
subtyping
accomodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule".
Spotlight Effect


·      People overestimate the extent to which their actions and appearance are noticed by others
Scapegoating
Tendency for individuals when frustrated or unhappy to displace agression on to groups that are disliked or powerless
Stereotype
a generalized (someTImes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Attitude
positive or negative evaluation of persons, objects, or issues
empathy
the vicarious experience of another's feeling.
consistency
in attribution theory, whether the person typically behaves this way in this situation
The cognitive comonent of prejudice consists of _______________.
stereotypes
Polygraph
A Mechanical instrument that records physiological arousal from multiple channels. They are 75% accurate but can be fooled.
cognitive dissonance
disconcerting emotional state that occurs when there is a conflict between attitudes or attitudes and behavior.
Attribution
Process of assigning causes to behavior (can be internal or external)
Hostile sexism
an active dislike of women
blame-the-victim dynamic
if bad circumstances breed bad outcomes, people can use outcomes as a reason not to change circumstances
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
When our behavior towards another inadverently creates or encourages the behavior we are expecting
Normative Influence
A phenomenon whereby one person's behavior is influenced by another person's behavior because the latter provides information about what is appropriate.
"Manager-clerk" Study (Humphrey)
Procedure Subjects were randomly assigned the role of either “manager” or “clerk.” Managers were given supervisory responsibilities and clerks were assigned to follow orders. Results Managers were rated as higher than clerks in leadership ability, intelligence, and assertiveness.
Informative Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinion about relity
Social Psychology is a ______.
It applies the scientific method of _________ _________, ___________, and ___________ to the study of the human condition.
Science
 
Sytematic Observation,
Description,
Measurement
empathy-altruism hypothesis
some prosocial acts are motivated solely by the desire to help someone in need.
intrinsic motivation
Engaging in behavior because of interest and enjoyment
voir dire
Pretrial interview of potential jurors to uncover signs of bias
The process of seeking out and interpreting situations so as to attain a potsitive view of oneself
self-enhancement
role
a set of explanations(norms) about a social position, defining how those in the social position ought to behave.
ingroup favoritism






the tendency for people to evaluate
favorably and privilege members of their own group vs the outgroup. 





i. Informational social influence-
confirmation bias in-group discussion. If we both
Door-in-the-face
a strategy for gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request (the door-in-the-face), the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request.
Recovered Memory Phenomenon
People “remember” terrible things that never happened. recollection of false traumatic event based on psychotherapy that misleads patients
scapegoat theory
prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing sopmeone to blame
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency for observers when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate/ignoring external causes & to overestimate the person's internal factors
Matching Hypothesis
the prediction that most people find friends and lovers that are on the same "level" of attractiveness
Reciprocity
the principal that people tend to like others who like them back
Social Loafing
The tendency to expend less effort when working as a member of a group than when working alone.
Door-in-the-face technique
making a larger request before making the real, more small request
Current Thought of media today
media violence affects: 


people who have difficulty separating reality and fantasy 
people with high levels of frustration and anger  
social psychology
branch of psychology that seeks an understanding of how people affect and are affected by others
Gender Differences
Amount is similar, types are different (male: direct, female: indirect)
social facilitation
A process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on an easy task, but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
SOCIAL IDENTITY
The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
self-reference effect
tendency to have better memory for information relevant to one's self than for other sorts of material
Foot-In-The-Door-Phenomenon
the tendancy for people to comply with some large request after first agreeing to a small request
Investment Model
The theory that people's commitment to a relationship depends not only on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, and comparison level and their comparison level for alternatives but also on how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it
Scapegoat Hypothesis
Claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes
social categorization
the classification of ppl into groups on the basis of common attributes
Perceptual readiness
The likelihood that a sensory input will be categorized in terms of a given category - how quickly you can recall info.
Mattering
refers to our sense that we are important to other people in the world
negative state relief model
Helping others aids in eliminating negative moods and unpleasant feelings.
Self awareness
degree to which you are more aware towards one self, self focused attention, see yourself in a mirror, or on video tape and you tend to see self discprencies
Stimulus generalization
the tendency to respond to a new stimulus as if it is the original conditioned stimulus
institutional review board (IRB)
a university that examines research proposals and makes judgments about the ethical appropriateness of research
companionate love
the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined
free riders
people who benefit from the group but give little in return.
TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF EMOTION
Arousal x its label - emotion
Haidt’s Two Kinds of Love


·      criticizes the “myth of true love”, the idea that you fall in love with one person who is perfect for you and you remain in passionate love forever.
o      Passionate – develops quickly, intense, fleeting
o      Companionate – develops slowly, involves trust, companionship, union. (This is why arranged marriages can surprisingly work)
o      The transition from passionate to companionate love is difficult. Involves sobering realizations of faults in others, often leads to break up. But companionate love has its own benefits for relationships that make the shift, it undergirds strong marriages
Social Influence
The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and behavior.
• Mere presence hypothesis-
when we become aroused around members of our own s
- Social loafing: - how to diminish it
increase personal involvement
minimize free riding
makes groups smaller
see your group members as competent and willing to contribute (self fullfilling prophecy
clarify group goals
set high standars
increas unity
Power
ability to obtain what we desire in a group despite resistance
Factor 7: Culture and Human Behavior
Culture differences in self- definiton- Independent vs. Interdependent Cultures- Individualism vs. Collectivism
what is prejudice?
a negative prejudgement of a group and its members.
REALISTIC GROUP CONFLICT THEORY
The theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.
Archer and McDaniel (1995)Gender and aggression
•) found consistent gender differences in an 11-country study where people had to complete stories about conflict situations, with men being consistently more likely to suggest violent completions than women. However, culture too played a major role.
Belief in a Just World
A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
Foot in the door phenomenon
Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to later comply with a larger request
social vs. nonsocial groups
Social Group: Two or more people sharing common goals who interact with and influence one another.Nonsocial group: Two or more people who are in the same place at the same time.
Describe what is meant by ʺreinforcing more desirable environmental alternativesʺ in the context of automobile use.
This involving providing incentives or other rewards for individuals who engage in socially desirable and environmentally friendly behaviors.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
What is thought suppression? What two processes are at work when we try to suppress thoughts and why does suppression often have the effect of making thoughts more accessible?
Thought suppression is avoiding thinking about something we want to forgetAutomatic process: searches for the unwanted thoughtControlled process: creates a thought to distract from the unwanted thoughtBut, often times thought suppression → having the thought moreWhen the controlled process breaks down, the thought becomes even more accessibleAutomatic process is operating when you notice that you are thinking about the information you aren’t supposed to knowControlled process is operating when you think of something else—I’ll go buy a soda
Causes of aggression can be seen inthe following formate :
Instinct or drive Psychological influences Social developmental in fluenciesPersonal variablesCultural; influencesAvailability of firearmsAggression, gender and relationships
The Weapons Effect (Berkowitz & Le Page 1967)
the mere presence of weapons can
increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior.
* “the finger pulls the trigger, but the trigger may also be pulling the finger”
-Demonstrated in lab setting
*presence of guns => aggression (electric shocks)
*external validity?
Describe an example of the Fundamental Attribution Error.
Jones and Harris (1967) in which participants read an essay presumably written by a student. In that study participants were more likely to infer the student's true attitude when the position taken had been freely chosen than when they thought the student had been assigned to it. Whether the essay topic was nucler power, abortion, drug laws, or the death penalty, the results are essentially the same. 
Relationship between art and science (Pavel Semonov)
As scientists, we look closely at our environment and try to organize the unknown in a sensible and meaningful way. As artists, we reorganize the known environment to create something entirely new.
Mills (1958) made it easy for sixth graders to cheat on a competitive exam with prizes to the winners, and surreptitiously observed who cheated.Results...
Children who cheated showed a more lenient attitude toward cheating, and those who resisted the temptation, a harsher attitude, than their pre-test scores.
what are the three ways that modeling can effect behaviour
1) in the acquistion or learning of a new behaviour 2) in the inhibitation or disinhibitation of a behaviour in certain circumstances 3) In direct, immediat imitation at a given time ( response facilitation ) this is shown in drinking behaviour, and eating behaviour
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