Social Psychology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
In many collectivistic cultures individuals work harder when they are in groups than when they are alone. This phenomenon is called:A)social striving.B)the bystander effect.C)the modesty bias.D)social loafing.
A)social striving.
4. Religious commitment is correlated with charitable giving and volunteerism.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
Integrative agreements
Win-win agreements that reconcile both parties’ interests to their mutual benefit.
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own, is called:A)altruism.B)deindividuation.C)attribution.D)prejudice.
8. Research has indicated that violent acts are more likely to occur on hot days.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
3. The mere-exposure effect provides one possible explanation for             A)        why proximity leads to liking.             B)        why similarity leads to liking.             C)        i
            A)        why proximity leads to liking.
8. Empathy often produces helping only when the help-giver believes the victim will actually receive the needed help.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
Social-exchange theory
The theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs
5. Most people rate physically attractive men and women as colder, less intelligent, and less moral than plainer people.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
6. Social psychologists agree that the best answer to the negative effects of portraying sexual violence is increased censorship.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
Pamela observes that people don't sit next to strangers on the subway when there are empty seats available. She notices this also happens on the bus, in the movie theater, and in the cafeteria. Pamela's observations suggest that people's behavior in these
A)social norms.
A(n) _____ is a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way that may be either positive, negative, or ambivalent.A)attributionB)attitudeC)self-effacing biasD)prosocial behavior
During Nick's first trip abroad he was surprised to find that people in other cultures ate such foods as snails, squid, insects, lizards, earthworms, seaweed, and rotten-looking cheeses. “One day they will become civilized like us and eat normal foods l
9. In playing Prisoner's Dilemma, a person's outcome from ANY given decision will be better if he or she             A)        cooperates.             B)        does not cooperate.             C)    
            B)        does not cooperate.
2. In the Prisoner's Dilemma, a person always receives the best payoff on a particular trial if he or she cooperates.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
4. There is no correlation between national wealth and well-being.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
Social-responsibility norm
An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
15. The violence viewing effect is strongest when an __________ person commits ____________ violence.             A)        unattractive; unjustified             B)        unattractive; justified          
            D)        attractive; justified
2. One of the most powerful predictors of whether any two people are friends is their sheer proximity to one another.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
16. Factory workers want a pay rate of $15 per hour and management offers $12 per hour. After weeks of conflict they agree to have a third party set the pay scale. After hearing both sides the third party sets the rate at $14. This is an example of reso
            B)        arbitration.
Adaptation-level phenomenon
The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level
6. Animals of many species have been bred for aggressiveness.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
During Stanley Milgram's original obedience study, most of the subjects:A)showed virtually no emotions or feelings while shocking the learner.B)quickly figured out that the experimental situation was bogus and that the learner was not really getting shock
C)showed extreme tension and conflict as they continued to shock the learner.
7. French students' least favorite letter among the letters of the alphabet is             A)        the hardest letter to pronounce.             B)        the hardest letter to draw.             C)  
D)        the least frequent letter in the French language.
1. Research on violent video games shows that playing them             A)        increases players' aggressive thinking.             B)        increases players' prosocial behaviors.             C)   
A)        increases players' aggressive thinking.
Psychologist Cheryl Kaiser and her colleagues looked at how people with a strong belief in a just world psychologically resolved the fact that thousands of innocent people died in the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. Kais
B)revenge against; ensure that they got what they deserved and restore justice
5. Appeals to altruistic norms have been slow to             A)        be helpful in reducing social dilemmas.             B)        work in resolving small-scale, but not large-scale, dilemmas.          
A)        be helpful in reducing social dilemmas.
Social loafing refers to the:A)tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.B)tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance.C)tendency to expend more effort on a task when it is a group effort.D)reducti
A)tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.
10. Research has indicated that when students have been informed through a lecture of how bystanders can affect one's reactions to an emergency,             A)        the students are subsequently more likely to help someone in need.
  A)        the students are subsequently more likely to help someone in need.
13. What does the text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?             A)        Equity for strangers, equality for friends.             B)        An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.        
D)        Whoever has the gold, makes the rules.
pluralistic ignorance
"Sex discussion group" study
(a.k.a. sociological social psychology) study of effects of larger society on social psychological processes
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. It generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
Milgram's obedience paradigm (in detail)
time-saving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgments to simple rules of thumb
Scientific Method
Observation, Guess, Testable Hypothesis, Design an Experiment
feelings of likeing for others, together with having positive thoughts about them and inclinations to act toward them in positive ways
Make internal attribution if it directly affects you
excessive self-love and a selfish orientation
an unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when someone is trying to restrict their freedom
Violence: extreme acts of aggression (e.g., shooting, killing another person)
Positive SFP
Perceiver overestimates the targets ability,Perceiver treats the target consistent with the overly positive belief, target responds by confirming the overly positive belief
Belief that includes an emotional component
Cognitive consistency
We want beliefs/attitudes and behaviors to be compatible, but they aren’t always consistent
loss of self awareness and self restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Companionate Love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
Social Facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 733)
Behavior whose purpose is to harm another.
random assignment
the process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition(Note the distinction between random assignment in experiments and random sampling in surveys. random assignment helps us infer cause and effect. random sampling helps us generalize to a population)
The process of activating knowledge or goals, of making them ready for use.
What are 3 ways to measure variables?
Describe each one.
Self- Reports
Lymbic System
hippocampus and amygdala, present in all animals. Prefrontal corex inhibits the emotions that are produced here (base emotions, i.e. aggression)
public conformity
Superficial change in overt behavior, without a corresponding change of opinion, produced by real or imagined group pressure
within Category Homogeneity
Overestimate the similarity within groups
How could ingratiation occur in an everyday situation?
group polarization 

as enhance the initial attitudes of
members who already agree. 

• Additive
-each member performs the same duties. Productivit
gender norms
What is considered as appropriate behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes for males and females, as directed by a society.
Ego-defensive behavior
must protect positive self view through denial or a good excuse
"us"; people with whom we share a common identity
Bystander Effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Similarity principle
the notion that people are attracted to people most similar to them
Personal Identity
the part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Fundamental Attribution error
overestimate internal causes for other peoples behavior. Easy to forget about external reasons and we have stable expectations. Just world phenomena
Social Psychology
Focuses on how SOCIAL SITUATIONS can influence the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of an INDIVIDUAL
jurors are sympathetic to--
well dressed man
plainly dressed woman 
defendant with many dependants 
older defendant 
less likely to convict, or favor strong punishment 
believe physical characteristics indicate criminality
looking-glass self
the idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others
People typically lower their voice in the library or in a hospital room and talk louder in a sports arena because of _________________.
Situational norms
central processing
Central route processes are those that require a great deal of thought, and therefore are likely to predominate under conditions that promote high elaboration. Central route processes involve careful scrutiny of a persuasive communication (e.g., a speech, an advertisement, etc.) to determine the merits of the arguments
Attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy.
experimenter effect
sex of the experimenter affects the outcome of the study
Cognitively Based Attitude
And attitude based primarily on people’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude
Misattribution of Arousal
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way we doExample: residual arousal from one source (caffeine) can enhance the intensity of how the person interprets other feelings (attraction to someone)
Fundamental Attributional Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
perceptual confirmation
observers perceive what the expect to perceive
EX: believing the black basketball player had greater ability but less intelligence
Social identity
the positive feelings we gain from belonging to positive or important groups
Social Identity Theory
we carry self-definitions that match all the categories to which we belong
Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a large request
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 748)
If it causes pleasure or pain you are more likely to make an internal attribution
classical conditioning
the type of learning in which a subject comes to respond to a neutral stimulus as he would to another stimulus by learning to associate the two stimuli.
Social Cognitive Perspective
the study of how we perceive, remember, and interpret information about ourselves and others.
two-factor theory of emotion
arousal x its label = emotion**
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around out bodies. its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us.
Transactive memory
The combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual
Interjudge Reliability
The level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data.
. Deindividuation
- makes us no longer represent ourself as an indiv
Halo effect
If a person has one salient good trait, his other characteristics are likely to be judged as better than they actually are
Collective behavior
refers to the action or behavior of people in groups or crowds, a major subfield of sociological social psychology
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 766)
theory of evolution
a theory proposed by Charles Darwin to explain how change occurs in nature
Central route to persuasion 
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
The bystander effect
The finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
Clark and Clark (1947) -African American children and dolls
showed that African-American children as young as three were already convinced that it was not desirable to be black, choosing to play with white rather than black dolls. This evidence led to the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision to desegregate schools.
Performance-contingent rewards
Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task
Four factors that Stanley Milgram found greatly increased Obedience
(All relate to Milgram's electric shock experiments)
1) The person giving the orders is close at hand and is perceived to be a legitimate authority figure.
2) The authority figure is supported by a prestigious institution. Compliance was somewhat lower when Milgram dissociated his experiments from Yale University.
3) The victim is depersonalized or at a distance, even in another room.
4) There are no role models for defiance; that is, no other participants are seen disobeying the experimenter.
What is a Dependent Variable?
In an experiment, a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable.
Heuristic–Systematic Model of Persuasion
An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shortcuts (heuristics), such as “Experts are always right”
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
When someone labels you something you are not, yet you become that thing.
Describe a study that demonstrates the four dissonance paradigms (free choice, belief disconfirmation, effort justification, and insufficient justification). Be sure to describe results in terms of the two cognitions and four tenets of the theory.
Free Choice Paradigm-People make a difficult choiceThe positive aspects of the non-chosen alternative → dissonanceWe then revise these judgments to make these positives less positiveCalled “spreading alternatives”Female Ps were asked to rate household items and then choose one to take homeIV: Easy decision (blender vs. spoon) or Hard decision (blender vs. iron)After choice, they rated the objects againDV: change in ratingsResult: more spreading alternatives in the hard decision conditionBelief-Disconfirmation Paradigm-Person has a strong belief disconfirmedCog 1 – I believed in this cult.Cog 2 – It was wrong.Relevant and dissonant = negative arousal.Solutionrationalization (our faith prevented the world from being destroyed) add consonant cognitions (each new person who believes in the cult  social proof)Effort-Justification Paradigm-Person engages in an undesirable behavior to gain a desirable outcomeOutcome seems even more desirable because of the undesirable behaviorCog 1 – I didn’t want to talk about my sex life Cog 2 – I did to get into the groupRelevant and dissonant = negative arousal.Reduced by adding the cognition, “It was worth it to be in such a great group”Insufficient Justification-People are induced to lie and are given very little justification for doing thisThey reduce dissonance by changing attitudesCog 1 – I told someone they would enjoy doing something I know they will hateCog 2 – I did it for only $1.00Relevant and dissonant = negative arousal.Reduce dissonance by seeing the task as enjoyable
What is procedural justice ?
The process of arriving art a decision - in other words social psychologist are concerned with both what has been decided and how it has been decided .
Consequences for Targets of SP&D (5)
-concerns over being perceived in a way that is inconsistent with your self view can be
cognitively and motivationally debilitating.

- perceived and evaluated inaccurately through the lenses of stereotypes and

- negative implications for societal relationships and achievement.

- creates a context that can shape your actions and reactions

- slowly shapes you to fit into the world that surrounds you
Principle 2: Commitment & Consistency
Please call if you have to change your plans-Will you please call if you have to change you plans? no show rate dropped from 30-10%
Consequence odf being social animals
we live in a state of tension between values associated with individuality and values associated with conformity
Imagine you are a mayor and are trying to convince the city council to agree with yourproposal for a new water treatment plant. You decide to hire someone to testify in front ofthe city council. Name and describe the two characteristics you would look for
Expertise: is the communicator an acknowledged expert on the relevant issuespertaining to water treatment?Trustworthiness: will the city council perceive the communicator to be honest andunbiased?
Describe a person who is high on social dominance orientation, and be sure to address how likely that person is to hold prejudices.
SDO is the extent to which a person desires his or her own group to dominate other groups and be socially and materially superior to them. Individuals who are high on this dimension believe that their group should be wealthier and more powerful than other groups, and are more likely to have negative prejudices of other groups.
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