Social Psychology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Proximity
Geographical nearness. This (more precisely, “functional distance”) powerfully predicts liking.
7. Emotional arousal plus anticipated consequences provides the formula for aggression according to             A)        ethological theory.             B)        catharsis theory.             C)   
            D)        social learning theory.
8. Viewing pornographic films simulating passionate sex tends to increase satisfaction with one's own partner.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
1. Psychologists believe that, because they are more involving and provoke identification with the characters, violent video games are even more potent models of aggression than television.             A)        True         
            A)        True
During a discussion about junk food with her two adolescent children, Mrs. Kozena made it very clear that she thought junk food was disgusting and that it upset her to see her children eat it. Mrs. Kozena's negative feeling about junk food best illustrate
C)emotional
2. American cities populated by Southerners have much higher White homicide rates than those populated by Northerners.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
8. Global problems stemming from increases in production and consumption include             A)        climate warming.             B)        overfishing.             C)        depleted forest res
            D)        all of these.
1. Conflict is a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
6. Evidence strongly supports the complementarity hypothesis.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
Superordinate goal
A shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people’s differences from one another.
Sylvester was thrilled when he received a large bonus from his company. Later that day, when he was asked if he could volunteer a few hours to help at the Food Bank, he readily agreed. This example best illustrates the:A)“feel-good, do-good” effect.B)
A)“feel-good, do-good” effect.
In order to earn his “Community Service” badge as a Boy Scout, young Miguel is a weekend volunteer in the “Up With Trees” program. Miguel's behavior in this situation is an example of:A)deindividuation.B)altruism.C)prosocial behavior.D)the bystand
C)prosocial behavior.
10. Those told that certain others like them feel a reciprocal affection.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
1. According to the text, the classic illustration of altruism is provided by             A)        the Kitty Genovese case.             B)        the parable of the Good Samaritan.             C)   
            B)        the parable of the Good Samaritan.
9. Which of the following best demonstrates the phenomenon your textbook author refers to as the "American paradox?"             A)        reduced rights and weakened civility             B)        low incomes and h
            C)        high incomes and low morale
11. The ability to understand and feel what another feels constitutes             A)        altruism.             B)        moral exclusivity.             C)        reciprocity.         
            D)        empathy.
8. In laboratory games, those who are 100 percent cooperative are rarely exploited.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
Mediation
An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions
5. Modeling prosocial behavior on TV has no effect on children.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
The tendency to judge the behavior of the members of your group more favorably than the behavior of members of other groups is called:A)the actor-observer discrepancy.B)the just-world hypothesis.C)the out-group homogeneity effect.D)in-group bias.
D)in-group bias.
19. Which of the following is NOT one of the four C's of peacemaking?             A)        contact             B)        control             C)        cooperation             D)   
            B)        control
1. The warmest 23 years on record all occurred prior to 1975.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
12. The statement, "There is no duty more indispensable than that of returning a kindness," reflects the __________________ norm.             A)        restitution             B)        reciprocity         
            B)        reciprocity
8. Compared to compromises, integrative agreements are             A)        more enduring and lead to better ongoing relationships.             B)        only reached through mediation or arbitration.       
A)        more enduring and lead to better ongoing relationships.
Mere-exposure effect
The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them.
10. A sign that conflict has been resolved is when the parties begin to hold mirror-image perceptions of one another.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
15. In the tragedy of the commons, the "commons" refers to             A)        disputed border territory.             B)        stolen goods or winnings.             C)        any shared and lim
            C)        any shared and limited resource.
The bus is fairly crowded when you get on. You quickly decide to sit next to a well-dressed senior citizen because you think that he'll probably leave you alone. This example illustrates the process of:A)social facilitation.B)social loafing.C)deindividuat
D)person perception.
8. Theodore Newcomb's study of unacquainted male transfer students who roomed together in a university boarding house indicated that             A)        those whose attitudes and interests were initially most similar were most likel
  A)        those whose attitudes and interests were initially most similar were most likely to form close friendships.
10. Researchers looking for a "hidden third variable" that might explain the difference in aggression between heavy and light TV viewers have been able to explain the difference by statistically controlling for             A)        i
D)        No third variables tested yet have been able to explain the difference.
Need to belong
A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions.
Of the following factors, which is NOT one that will make you more likely to conform to the group's norms?A)You have already expressed commitment to a different idea or opinion.B)You are strongly attracted to the group and want to be a member of it.C)You
A)You have already expressed commitment to a different idea or opinion.
13. Tanika escaped from an abusive relationship. Now, she is most likely to contribute to a fundraising appeal for             A)        helping abused women leave abusive relationships.             B)        counse
A)        helping abused women leave abusive relationships.
Person perception follows some basic principles. Which of the following is NOT one of them?A)Your self-perception influences how you perceive others and how you act on your perceptions.B)Your goals in a particular situation determine the amount and kind o
C)Your reactions to others are not determined by your perceptions of them but rather by who or what they really are
2. What has been the influence of school desegregation on racial attitudes in the United States?             A)        neither positive nor negative changes have prevailed.             B)        hostility has incr
A)        neither positive nor negative changes have prevailed.
When the subjects of Milgram's obedience experiments completed a follow-up questionnaire, Milgram found that:A)most of the subjects continued to be psychologically traumatized long after they had participated in the experiment.B)approximately half of his
D)most said they were glad to have participated in the experiment.
Genes
heritable trait
unconditioned response
naturally occurring response
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
Deindividuation
loss of self-restraint and self-awareness when in groups
Social Psychologists measure variables in many ways, but most can be placed into one of two categories: _________ and ________.
Self-reports
Observations
Conceptual Variables
Abstract or general variables.
Values
deeply held ideals and beliefs
attitude
positive or negative evaluation or persons, objects, or issues
Proximity
physical or geographical closeness; a major influence on attraction.
Observational
Correlational..In the real world. Pro-good external validity. Con-weak internal validity b/c no indp. variable. Must have strong coding
Self-Handicapping
The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
hard to get
make product seem limited
injunctive norms
Involving perceptions of which behaviors are typically approved or disapproved. What OUGHT TO BE DONE in a given situation
Labeling
Persuasive technique.1st apply a label to a person, and that person will be more likely to agree to a request consistent with that label.e.g. "You look like a strong young man. Will you carry this piano upstairs?"
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Foot-in-the-door technique
Persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one
Mindguards
People who censor troublesome incoming information and enable groupthink
behavioral (learning)
studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on how their environment receives these behaviors. rewards/punishments can modify, change or control behavior. behaviors enforced also by observation, immitation, and thought process
racism
negative bias held toward others based on their ethnicity or racial identification
Scapegoat Theory
outlet for anger, someone to blame
conformity
changing behavior or beliefs to match other members of group.
Learned
-Lorenz – convinced ducks that he was their mother-Bobo doll study – modeling others behavior – children imitate aggression
Cult
A group typically characterized by (1) distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion to god or a person. (2) Isolation from the surronding "evil culture, and (3) a charismatic leader
Exemplar
A mental representation of a specific episode, event, or individual.
Attribution Theory
suggest how we explain someone's behavior-- by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Limitations of Biological Theory
explain varying situational factors
socialization
the process through which a culture teaches its members about its beliefs, customs, habits and language
Aversive Racism
When someone has overtly positive attitudes towards other races but implicitly feels slightly negatively.e.g. I love white people, but they're greedy.
an attitude that is activated automatically from memory, often without the person's awareness that she or he possesses it
implicit attitude
de-individualization
the loss of self-awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Ultimate Attribution Error

The mistake of attributing the behavior of entire groups-like women, Christians, or African Americans-to their dispositions.
Leads us to underestimate the impact of situational factors on people's behavior.
Defensive attributions
Explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
Devine's theory
when we process information about another, first the stereotypes are triggered and then we decide whether to accept them
Decoys
Make you think that something average is awesome i.e. being taken to a regular house seems better after visiting a shack
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
occurs when one person's belief about others leads one to act in ways that induce the others to appear to confirm the belief
Personal Space
An area surrounding each person, much like an invisible bubble, that the person considers part of himself or herself and uses to regulate the level of intimacy with others.
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression
External Validity
Degree to which subjects behavior is naturally occurring...Deception can be used.
positive psychology
the branch of psychology that studies ways of making human life better, enriching human experience, and helping people cultivate their potentialities
random sample
Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion.
illusory correlation
the tendency to overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all
What is a general and enduring positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, or ideas?
Our attitudes
Schacher-Singer Theory
Two factor theory: stimulus causes a physiological response and a cognitive label which is interpreted as an emotionstimulus-->physiological response and cognitive label-->emotion
Ingroup Bias
The tendency to favor one's own group.
intrapersonal conflict
tension within an individual due to incompatible/competing goals
Cooperation
Behavior by two or more incivs that lead to mutual benefit
Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy
Stating an attitude that runs counter to one's own private belief
Social Trap
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
The evolutionary perspective
-task of survival
-task of reproduction
Thomas theorem
when people define situations as real, those situations become real in their consequences
stereotype threat
sense of threat evoked in members of stereotyped groups when they believe they may be judged or treated stereotypically
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
parenting style
the manner in which parents rear their children
Operant Conditioning
a type of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus they are alike, we are diverse
Basking in reflected glory
process or presenting ourselves with successful, high status others or events
 
ex. we won/they lost
Attribution Theory and crowding ?
Attribution Theory and crowding ?Independent of cultural background - a model has been developed - It postulates that people feel crowded when they have been aroused by circumstances such as violations of personal space or others stressors and the attribute this arousal to the density of people around then. Thus crowding will not result if people do not feel aroused or if they do not attribute their arousal to violations of their personal space.
Social Psychology
the scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people.
Affect blend
A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
Television as a socialization agent
ubiquitous, appeals to children, minimal skills, visual
Status Characteristics theory
links social roles from a larger society to stratification processes in groups
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
A theoretical model that posits two channels by which persuasive appeals lead to attribute change: a central route and a peripheral route.
self as institution
the way a person acts in public, especially in official roles
Darley & Latane "Epileptic Seizure" 
 
Also "Smoke Filled Room" and "Lady in Distress" 
 
Decision Tree:
1. Notice something is wrong
2. Define the event as an emergency
3. Assume personal responsibility
 
The larger the group the less likely people were to help. 
Sources of Prejudice are?
. Social Sources ( social status impacts prejudice.) . Social Identity (being a member of a group status impacts prejudice) Emotional sources(frustration, conflict over scarce resources impacts prejudice.) Cognitive sources (thinking processes impact prejudice.)
Review on the bystander effect
the presence of others inhibits helping especially if the emergency is AMBIGUOUS and the other bystanders are STRANGERS and CANNOT read one another's reactions.
The Rifle Study (Turner, Layton, & Simons, 1975) Study 2 IV1? IV2? DV? Results?
-Observation Study
*IV1: aggressive cues & context

-rifle and bumper sticker
-no rifle, rifle & “friend,” or rifle & “vengeance”
*IV2: victim visibility
-curtain closed or curtain open
*DV: horn-honking
*Results/Conclusions: experimental evidence converges with correlational and
anecdotal evidence
-innate components
-learned through culture
-determined by the situation (cues)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. When our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing out attitudes 9
phenomenal self (working self-concept)
the image of self that is currently active in the person's thoughts
adhere to personal standards of behavior
the third part of private self-awareness in which one acts more in line with their true beliefs as the are more aware of them
what is a formal group?
a set time frame, rules, leaders, etc.
Why do we have attitudes? Be prepared with an example of each.
KnowledgeOrganizing and interpreting informationValue-ExpressionExpressing central values or beliefsUtilitarian FunctionMaximizing rewards, minimizing punishments
situations choose the person
ex: you may want to go out with someone but they must choose to go out with you
Wason Card-Selection Task
"if P then Q", people have a hard time doing this but when its a social rule they perform perfectly.
In relation to cognitive dissonance, what is deindividuation?
When you have less restraint in a group.
 
(Ex: streaking, KKK)
Things you wouldn't normally do alone. The KKK allows more freedom while there because no one can see who you are.
Theory evaluation... what makes a good theory?
1. Testable? 2. Must fit data 3. Parismony...simple theory. 4. Generates research
Name and define the two reasons that strong attitudes resist change.
Commitment: the extent to which the person believes his/her attitude is correct.Embeddedness: the degree to which an attitude is connected with the personʹsself-concept, values, and social identity.
how would the soldiers at abu graib be convicted according to the correspondent inference theory?*they would be convicted based on dispositional factors
- if the officers had a choice- if their behavior was not common- if their behavior was undesierable
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