Social Psychology 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Inner causes
-Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: Frustration causes aggression-Berkowitz – changed the frustration/aggression hypothesis-said people can be aggressive without being frustrated-Children are more aggressive, but adults are more fatal
Situational (external)

that refer to external events, like weather, actions of others, etc. 

Behavior (usually negative) directed towards others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group.
Aims of research
To find answers
to cut off reflected failure
conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
understood rules for accepted and expected behavior
following orders from an authority figure
conditioned stimulus
the learned or associated stimulus
excessive self-love and a selfish orientation
beliefs, customs, habits and language shared by the people living in a particular time and place
Reducing Aggression
Prevention is key.Teach nonaggressive coping strategies.Reward prosocial, desirable behaviors. Don’t model aggression (family, school, media).Reduce availability of weapons (aggression cues).
Implicit Attitudes
Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious
an unfavorable stereotype; a negative attitude toward a group of people
Performance evaluation
men - performance; women luck
the quality of genuine closeness and trust achieved in communication with another person
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Door-in-the-face technique
Gaining compliance is requesting an impossibly demanding task first, then scaling back
Social Facilitation
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
social cognition
How people's perceptions of themselves and others affect their relationships and how the social environment influence thoughts, beliefs, & values.
Psychodynamic SelfFreud
Selfish tendencies (id) are balanced out by social norms (superego)
Fear-Arousing Communications
Persuasive messages that attempt to change people's attitudes by arousing their fears
relational self-beliefs
beliefs about our identities in specific relationships
More likely to aggress in hot weather
out-group homogeneity
The tendency to assume that within-group similarity is much stronger for out-groups than for in-groups Over-generalization
Learning in aggression
operant (directly receive rewards) -- observational learning (see model rewarded)
Define: In-group bias
positive feelings and special treatment we reserve for people we have defined as being part of our in-group (the group with which a person identifies and of which he or she feels a member), and the negative feelings and unfair treatment we reserve for others simply because we have defined them as being in the out-group (groups which an individual does not identify with).
stable set of desires, feelings, and behaviors
nonsocial contexts
individualists were more attuned to the focal objects while collectivists describes the scene as a whole.
Ingroup Bias
the tendency to favor one's group
-----is defined by the proclivity to cooperate with others, giving others the benefit of the doubt, and viewing one's fellow human beings as basically good at heart.
Information related to us --> pay attention, remember; take too much responsibilty for successes; distort past in self-inflated ways
just world hypothesis
attribution error based on the assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
social exchange theory
states that our social behavior revolves around exchanges in which we try to minimize our costs and maximize our benefits
Actor-Observer Effect
The tendency to attribute the causes of one's own behavior to situational factors while attributing the causes of other people's behavior to internal factors or dispositions.
Social loafing
people slack off when working in groups
"Questioner-contestant" (College Bowl) Study(Ross, Amabile, & Steinmetz, 1977)
Procedure Subjects were randomly assigned the role of either “questioner” or “contestant.” Questioners made up questions and tested the contestants. Afterwards, both contestants and observers rated the questioners and contestants on general knowledge.Results Questioners were rated as more knowledgeable than contestants.
Scripted Situation
A situation in which certain events are expected to occur in a particular sequence.
A changing in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people
Intimacy and close relationships depends on:
Interpersonal attachment Nonverbal intimacy self-disclosureequity
self-affirmative theory
-a theory predicting that people will often cope with specific threats to the integrity of their self-concept by reminding themselves of other unrelated but cherished aspects of their self-concept
solutions to social/commons dilemma
make costs concrete, monitor consumption, make behavior public, cog. dissonance theory/hypocrisy technique, make people aware of norms, modeling, coercion/regulations, increase communication, change the payoffs, increase competition for socially appropriate behavior
Religous faith and helping
religous individuals are slightly more likely to give help. More likely to give aid. more likely to be organizing some community charity.
External Attribution
The inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
cognitive dissonance
a state of unpleasant tension that people experience when tehy hold contradictory attitudes, especially if they are displeased with this inconsistency
a reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagined, observed, or actual act of aggression.
Realistic conflict theory
Limit resources lead to conflict between groups and result in an increased prejudice
groups that share a common purpose and contain a formal set of rules and structure
"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity.
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Elaboration likelihood model
2 routes of persuasion, automatic or conscious
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to overestimate the role of personality ( or perceived personality) and to underestimate the role of situations when explaining other people's behavior.
When you have a chronic illness:

before treatment: anxiety, depression, fear, loss of control, lack of reciprocity, loss of social network.
after successful treatment: self-confidence, empathy, optimism, engagements with others. 
refers to what most people would do in a given situation
In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves
A. acquiring social scripts.
B. role-playing aggression.
C. desensitization to violence.
D. priming aggressive thoughts.
E. models of aggression.
B. role-playing aggression.
self-serving attribution bias
we have a pervasive tendency to attribute successes to internal, personal attributes and failure to external factors outside of our control
public acceptance
your behavior is in line with others, but your beliefs remain the same
Informational social influence
Influence stemming from the need for information in situation in which the correct action or judgment is uncertain.
what are some examples of attitudes?
pro-life/pro-choice, death penalty, homosexuality
daily hassels
The major sources of stress in most peoples' lives are what are termed ----. While only minor, ---- can be chronic and repetitive, such as having too much to do all the time, having to fight the crowds while shopping, or having to worry over money. Such daily hassles can be chronically irritating though they do not initiate the same general adaptation syndrome evoked by some major life events.
Social structure personality perspective
focuses on the connections between larger societal conditions and the individual
bystander effect
the tendency of a person to be less likely to offer help to someone if there are other people present
Justification of effort
- People are unlikely to change their self-concept to believe they were unskilled or foolish; instead they change their attitude towards the goal and see it positively
what are the sources for prejudice ?
motivation, agression,group favortism, feel of superiority, frustration.
made up of a few types of things (ppl) that are very similar to each other
Pennebaker (1990) self-awareness, not repressing emotions, sharing with people
that repressing emotional stresses has negative effects on health, and that revealing the emotions to another person has beneficial effects. Further, these beneficial effects are due not simply to venting of feeling but also to the self-awareness that usually accompanies self-disclosure
what is this called? (internal vs. external attribution)
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
Media and Decision Making
Even when communicators are not making a direct attempt to sell us something, they can succeed in influencing the way we look at the world and the way we respond to important events in our lives. Repeated vivid imagery shapes attitudes and opinions
Expectations of being sick 
people who think an illness will be bad likely to exaggerate symptoms--> ask others if they have experienced symptoms-->conclude you have what they have 
why mere exposure happens
Mere Exposure: The mere presence of others makes us more alert, which increases arousal.
When to use a Schema
depends on -Accessibility -Chronic accessibility - past experiences - Temporary accessibility - recent experience, priming
What is the self-concept? What functions does it serve?
The self-concept is a schema about yourself that contains all self-knowledgeThe self-concept has three functions:Managerial – organizes our future behaviorOrganizational – helps interpret and recall informationEmotional – helps determine emotional responses
University College London volunteers used a mechanical device to press on another volunteer's finger, after feeling pressure on their own finger.  They typically responded to the pressure on their finger with
A. less pressure than they had just experien
B. more pressure than they had just experienced.
How do Men, Women, and People from Asian Cultures Define Themselves?
-Western: independent view of self-Asian: interdependent view of self - defining themselves based on relationships with others-Men: collective interdependence - focus on their memberships of larger groups-Women: relational interdependence
Independent VIew of the Self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people
Approaches to 1) Stereotypes 2) Prejudices 3) Discrimination
1. Psychodynamic: SP & D as a result of a deviant personality disposition (Authoritarian Personality)

2) Sociocultural: SP & D as learned through societal forces

3) Social, Cognitive, and Motivational: SP &D as a byproduct of cognitive and motivational processes (Social Identity Theory)

*each approach has value
Please explain the three major rules of distributive Justice ?
Equity: equity theory is related to the theory of cognitive dissonance, in the sense that fairness can be restored by changing behavior or by changing perceptions. It props that a relationship between parties is a just one when the ratio of perceived outcomes to perceived inputs ( asses and liabilities that ;leas to a deserved outcome) are equal. Equality Sometimes resources are distributed equally rather than equitably , even through the participants have not made equal contributions - when group stability is important it may be disruptive to allocate outcomes differently to group members - research shows graph females prefer equality while males prefer equity.Need - those who need the most should get the most - need is closely related with the social responsibility and not surprising , affects such activities as charitable donations - “ you perceive a need so your since of social responsibility motivates you too respond to that need.
If NOT evaluated: it’s not my fault if we lose.
it’s not my fault if we lose.• Relaxation • Social
Independent variable
Causal factors
non-judgmental, present moment, awareness
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule."
uncomfortable internal state
temperature, pain, triggers
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint that occurs in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
-Universal belief that one's own culture/ethnic group if superior to all others
-We vs. them
- active process- subjective, not objective- may misrepresent the truth
the positive or negative overall evaluation that we have of ourselves
Primacy effect
Other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence.
The vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes enabling relationship. e
an organized structure of knowledge about a stimulus that is built up from experience and that contains causal relations; it is a theory about how the social world operates.
Group Polarization
Group discussions strengthen the dominate position held by individual group membersex: Political party national conventions
a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

i.e. fixate at oral stage--could lead to smoking or excessive eating
a relatively enduring evaluation of a person or thing; doesn't always match one's behavior
Leon Festinger
He proposed the Cognitive Dissonance Theory.
the tendency to attribute behavior to internal factors such as genes and personality
set of expectations about a social position
stigma consciousness
a person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination.
the use of stratagies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor
Social norm
rules and expectations for appropriate social behavior
An innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species.
The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd
Behavior whose purpose is to harm another
Hostile Aggression
aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain
"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
factor analysis
the statistical procedure used to identify clusters of test items that tap basic components of intelligence
Counter-attitudinal advocacy
the process of cognitive dissonance that occurs when a person states an opinion or attitude that runs counter to his or her private beliefs or attitudes
Chameleon Effect
This term refers to the phenomenon that people naturally and unconsciously mimic other peoples' expressions, postures, and voice tones, among other things. This makes it easier to relate to others.
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
personal identity
the part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals
injunctive norms
Norms that define what behaviors are typically approved or disapproved.
Outgroup members
people who belong to a different group
Indiv-Cognitive structures
Agressive schemas about how to react when certain events occur, automatic responders, priming study with gun rack in car
Task-Contingent Rewards
Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
informational vs. normative influence
normative influence: conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain experienceinformational influence: conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people.
situation factors that trigger affiliation needs
Proximity - physical closenessFamiliarity - seeing someone more often increases attractionAnxiety - Shatner - beings with others decreases anxiety
transformational leadership
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence.
collective self
aspects of the self that reflects relationships with other individuals and groups, for example family status, national and religious affiliations (when asked to describe themselves they say shit like "I am a Roman Catholic")
explanatory style
How people explain to themselves why they experience an event.
the tendency to seek information that supports our beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information
confirmation bias
Distinctiveness Information
Information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli.
frustration-agression principle
the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression
Self-Fulfilling Prophesies, Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid, 1977: IV? DV?
*Male-Female pairs tested (don’t meet; communication by phone)
*IV: Attractiveness of Photograph
-males (mis-)informed that pictures are of conversational partner.
-shown picture of an Attractive or Unattractive Female.
*DV: Judges’ Ratings
-female and male tracks of conversation rated (separately)
-males for warmth, friendliness, etc.
-based on conversations, NOT photos
people thing dimension
Brian Little's ------- of personality refers to the nature of vocational interests. Those at the "things" end of the dimension like vocations that deal with impersonal tasks—machines, tools, or materials. Examples include a carpenter, auto mechanic, building contractor, tool maker, or farmer. Those scoring toward the "people" end of the dimension prefer social occupations that involve thinking about others, caring for others, or directing others. Examples include a high school teacher, social worker, or religious counselor.
Actor-Observer Bias
tendency for actors to attribute their own actions to situational factors, whereas observers tend to attribute the same actions to stable personality dispositions of the actors
ambivalent sexism
an overt belief in equal treatment of the sexes joined with lingering, often understated belief that women should be treated differently
peripheral route persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by more superficial and incidental cues, such as a speaker's reputation or appearance
Covariation principle
for something to cause a behavior, it must be around during the behavior and absent when the behavior isn’t around
Depressive attributional style
The tendency of depressed people to attribute failures to internal, stable, and global causes.
Affectively Based Attitude
An attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object
Factors that reduce effectiveness of group brainstorming
production blockingfree ridingevaluation apprehensionperformance matching
Need for cognition 
The motivation to think and analyze. Assessed by agreement with items such as "The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me" and disagreement with items such as "I only think as hard as I have to."
consistency information
the extent to which the target person reacts in the same way on different occasions
distinctiveness hypothesis
Hypothesis that we know what makes us unique in a context and highlight it when talking about ourselves.
A collection of two or more people who believe they have something in common
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Roger 3 things needed for growth promoting climate
genuineness, acceptance, empathy
Halo Effect
general bias in which a favorable or unfavorable general impression of a person affects our inferences and future expectations about the person
3. Identify and describe two theories that argue aggression is a learned response? Specifically, be prepared to describe research that has found differences in aggression due to the region of the country.
Socialization of aggression and GenderMales and females are rewarded and punished differently for aggressionSocial roles suggest aggression will be more socially acceptable for males than femalesMales and females tend to be aggressive in different waysSocialization of aggression and cultureSocialization of aggression varies across cultures, even within the same nationCulture of Honor: Emphasis is placed on honor and status and aggression is used to protect honorEven minor conflicts can threaten honor and and can trigger aggressive responsesIV # 1: Ps were Northern and Southern malesIV # 2: whether or not the P is insulted by a confederateResults – Southern (vs. Northern) males:Feel angrierProduce more testosterone and cortisol (a stress hormone)Will be more behaviorally aggressive (in a game of “chicken”)Social Learning Theory We learn behavior by watching others and observing the consequencesWhen leads to positive outcomes for ourselves or others, we will become more aggressiveThis even works with observation of aggressive models (Bobo-Doll study)By watching aggressive models, people:Learn specific aggressive behaviorsLearn about the rewards and punishments associated with aggressionDevelop more positive attitudes and beliefs about aggression in generalConstruct aggressive “scripts”Nonaggressive models decrease aggressive behavior
compensatory model of helping
not responsible for problem, but for solution
pluralistic ignorance
not wanting to be the only one who doesn't know something. the phenomenon in which people in a group misperceive the beliefs of others because everyone in the group is acting inconsistently with their beliefs
central route to persuasion
a method of persuasion based on careful evaluation of evidence and logic
One-sided vs. two sided argument
Well-informed audience: less likely to be persuaded by one-sided arguments and presenters who mention opposition seem more credible. Less-informed audience: less likely to know arguments of the opposition and is more persuaded by one-sided arguments where the opposition is ignored
Ways that values can influence research
1) through choices of disciplines, research projects and questions asked2) through how research evidence is perceived and interpreted3) through how research findings and conclusions are described and communicated to others
If one student in a classroom begins to cough, others are likely to do the same.  This best illustrates
A. deindividuation.
B. ingroup bias.
C. the mere exposure effect.
D. the bystander effect.
E. the chameleon effect.
E. the chameleon effect.
Jane ElliotPrejudice simulation with eye color
divided her class by eye color, telling the blue-eyed students that they were better than the brown-eyed students and giving them special privileges; in less than half an hour, the formerly cohesive class was split along eye-color lines, with the blue-eyed students taunting and punishing the others, and the brown-eyed students feeling so low that their academic performance was depressed. The next day, the eye-color roles were reversed, and the day after that, the class was debriefed. Even 20 years later, the students claimed the exercise had a life-long impact
Explaining unpleasant behavior (Ellen Berscheid)
People have a tendency to explain unpleasant behavior by attaching a label to the perpetrator, thereby excluding that person from the rest of “us nice people”
What four factors affect the tendency to obey?
Lack of responsibility, social norms, foot in the door technique, time pressure
Why does media affect viewers' aggression? (5)
1. Watching TV violence may simply weaken previously learned inhibitions against aggression2. Watching TV violence might teach people new ways to aggress and inspire imitation3. TV violence may make feelings of anger more available and thus prime an aggressive response4. Watching violence reduces sensitivity and sympathy for victims, making it easier to live with violence and possibly to aggress5. Since watching TV violence makes the world seem a more dangerous place, I’m more likely to interpret strangers’ behavior or ambiguous situations as having hostile intent.
What is the contrast principal? What is one compliance technique that demonstrates this principal?
Allows our perception to be manipulated without the appearance of manipulationIf two items are different, we will overestimate the difference, depending on which we perceive firstLifting something light then something heavy will → perception that the item is heavierE.g., buying a car, then special features
Hebl et al. (2002) interviews being held for homosexuals vs heterosexuals
confederates applied for jobs in the community. In some job interviews the confederates portrayed themselves as homosexuals and in other interviews they did not. Hebl found that in the cases where the confederates were portrayed as homosexuals the potential employers were less verbally positive and spent less time interviewing them. However, the employers did not formally discriminate against them (e.g., not calling them back as often for follow-up interviews as the other candidates)
To say that 'psychology is a science' means that:
a. psychologists study only observable behaviors.b. psychologists approach the study of thoughts and actions with careful observation and rigourous analysis.c. it has ties only to the biological sciences.d
b. psychologists approach the study of thoughts and actions with careful observation and rigourous analysis.
What is the conflict spiral view of international conflict?
This is the view that escalations of international threat lead an opponent to feel more threatened and that leaders should thus demonstrate peaceful intentions to reduce the opponentʹs own defensive hostilities.
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