Social Psychology 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
increases violence against women
Assigning causes to behavior.
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
How the variable is changed
an unpleasant psychological state characterized by a vague, generalized apprehension or feeling that one is in danger
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing. Obedience is acting in accord with a direct order.
"them"-those percieved as different or apart from one's ingroup
refers to the unrealistic thought processes and decision making that occur within groups when the desire for group harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
individuals who don’t fit into groups are the odd one out
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
the casual explanations people give for their own and others' behaviors, and for events in general
Perspectives: Phenomenological
What drives social behavior?-persons subjective interpretation of a social situationex: a guy thinking a girl has the hots for him when clearly she is not interested(came out of hippie movement, rarely used)
Hostile sexism
Actively downgradesEx. “Men are chauvinistic pigs.”
Evaluations of people, objects, and ideas
maintaining or changing one's behavior to match the behavior or expectations of others
What are stereotypes
generalizations, assumptions that people make about the characteristics of all members of a group, based on exemplary
tendency for an individual to observe the situation for cues about how to react
Phil Zimbardo
Prison experiment--gives roles to the actors and they act upon that role(developing disparaging attitudes)
Social Norms
Standards regarding what is acceptable that are held by a particular culture; there are subtle pressures on members of the culture to adhere to these standards
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
-Willingness to speak up for an unpopular cause, blow the whistle, help a stranger in trouble
-Perceive the need for help or intervention
-Situation makes it easier to take responsibility
-Cost/benefit ration (You know someone is stealing at your job)
-Ally makes involvement more likely
-Entrapped (take the first step, commitment is easier)
Objective Self-Awareness
Make comparisons between your actual and ideal self. (Duval & Wicklund) 1972
Explicit Attitudes
Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report
the "risky shift" and the "cautious shift"
WPA; Civillity
low intensity deviant behavior w/ ambiguous intent to harm
Overjustification Effect
When people attribute their behavior to extrinsic influences instead of intrinsic, even though it may or may not used to be for intrinsic influences
Define: Scapegoating
• The tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless
social pressure
entire set of psychological forces that are exerted on us by others examples, judgment, expectations, and demands, whether real or imaginedex) holocaust
snap judgements
attributions are made very quickly based on limited info
Attribution Theory
suggests how we explain someone's behavior- by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
gender stereotype
--------------- are the beliefs that we hold about how men and women differ or are supposed to differ, which are not necessarily based on reality. Gender stereotypes can have important real-life consequences for men and women. These consequences can damage people where it most counts—in their health, their jobs, their odds of advancement, and their social reputations.
the instinct toward life, theorized by Freud
social loafing
tendency of people to exert less effort when working in a group than when working alone
reciprocity norm
the expectation that people will help those who have helped them
Personal Identity
The part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals.
Cognitive dissonance theory
discomfort when our attitudes and behaviors conflict
survey research
they obtain a representative group by taking a random sample.
Collectivistic culture
A culture that socializes its members to think of themselves as members of the larger group and to place the group's concerns before their own.
Bystander Effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Principle 6: Authority
Appear to be an expert
appearance of authority
Initial attraction are influenced by
propinquityphysical attractionphysical attractivenessreinforcements
The theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress.
mixed-motive conflict
conflict in which both parties can gain by cooperating but can maximize person gains by competing
Altruism debate
Everyone agrees that some hepful acts are either obviously egoistic or even partially egoistic. Altruism?it appears as though there is a true empathy and it is part of human nature. (biologically innate).
Internal Attribution
The inferences that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character or personality
a like or dislike that influences our behavior toward a person or thing
the process by which the mass media (particularly television) construct a version of social reality for the public.
Institutionalized racism
refers to the racist attitudes that are held by a majority of people because we live in a society where it is a norm
process in which use of language to think internally
Ways to combat social traps
1) Agreed-upon regulations
2) Better communication
3) Promoting awareness of our responsibilities toward community, nation, and the whole of humanity
Peripheral Route Persuasion
Attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speakers attractiveness.
Impressionable year’s hypothesis
younger people easier to persuade than older
what does social psychology explain/do?
explains surprising behaviors, reveals our wrong perceptions ( our "blind spots"), power of the situation (unaware factors influence our behaviors).
Type A personality and impact on health:
Personality characteristics: 
high need for control
sensitive to time pressure
treat most interactions as competitions 
@ risk for: 
heart attack, stroke, digestive problem, ulcers, divorce loss of friends. 
refers to what an individual does in a given situation on different occasions (if next time under same cirucmatnces would person do the same thing or different)
After Manny's father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires.  His action is best explained in terms of the
A. mere exposure effect.
B. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C. fundamental attribution error
E. frustration-aggression principle.
mere exposure effect
-the tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects and individuals the more we are exposed to them
-exposing people repeatedly to a particular object causes them to develop a positive attitude toward the object
six bases of social power
reward (money, approval), coercion (threat, disapproval), expertise (you think the person knows more than you), information (someone subtly conveys to you the right course of action), referent (you want to be like the person), legitimate authority (the person is an authority figure)
what is Behavior?
your intentions to act on your attitude
masculinity and feminiinity
Traits that define the cultural roles associated with being male or female. Two major personality instruments were published in 1974 to assess people using this new conception of sex roles (Bem, 1974; Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974). The masculinity scales contained items reflecting assertiveness, boldness, dominance, self-sufficiency, and instrumentality. The ------scales contained items that reflected nurturance, expression of emotions, and empathy. -----and ------are traits that refer to gender roles, as distinct from biological sex.
Components of culture include
Language, Symbols, Values and Beliefs, Norms, and Material Artifacts
informational social influence
results when a person is willing to accept others' opinions about reality
"Hostile media bias" Study(Vallone, Ross & Lepper, 1985)
Subjects: Pro-Arab and Pro-Israeli students Procedure: Subjects view news media coverage of the 1982 “Beirut massacre” Measures: Subjects rate the coverage on how much it favors each side
What is the role of arousal?
being aroused, intensify passionate feeling.
individualist cultures
like the US and Europe, a culture in which people are encouraged from an early age to think of themselves as unique individuals
Define: Normative conformity
The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group’s expectations and gain acceptance
what is Affect?
You truly form a strong attitude when you get emotional about a topic
Characteristics of a persuadable audience
Self-esteem: low self-esteem = easier to influence. Frame of mind of the audience prior to communication. Inoculation effect: helps people to resist attempts to influence them; method of resistance established by William McGuire
Why does SES status impact health values?

poor access to healthcare
fresh foods generally unavailable 
emphasis food quantity over quality
need for fullness + little money= buy crappy food.
different situations prime different parts of the person
our different motives can be triggered by some situations more than othersex: after someone attractive smiles at you, your romantic side comes out.
Social Cognition 4 aspects
1. Attention - affected by goals, characteristics of stimuli, self-relevance2. Interpretation3. Judgment4. Memory
What are intrinsic and extrinsic rewards? How do they relate to the overjustification effect?
Intrinsic-the desire to engae in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting not because of external rewards of pressuresextrinsic-the desire to engage in an activity because of ecternal reawards of pressures not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting Overjustificatio-the tendency for people to view their behavior as cause by compelling extrinsic reason makeing them understimate the ectent to which it was cause by intrinsic reasons
Gallup surveys indicate that Americans who frequently attend religious servieces are more likely than those who do not attend religious services to
A. report that they are currently aiding the poor and infirm.
B. demonstrate the bystander effect.
C. vi
A. report that they are currently aiding the poor and infirm.
How Do People Reduce Cognitive Dissonance
1. By challenging our behavior to bring it in line with the disruptive cognition2. Attempting to justify our behavior through changing one of the disruptive cognitions3. Attempting to justify our behavior by adding new cognitions-The smoker who failed to quit smoking may remind herself of the other things that she does well
Interdependent View of the Self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's relationships to other people; recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
- Social theories of gender role formation o Social Role Theory
This is the principle that men and women behave differently in social situations and take different roles, due to the expectations that society puts upon them (including gender stereotyping). This includes women taking positions of lower power, meeting ‘glass ceilings’, having home-making roles, etc.

Three common patterns are:

(a) Women take on more domestic tasks

(b) Women and men often have different occupational roles.

(c) In occupations, women often have lower status

Even though we are well-educated, my wife cooks and cleans and I do DIY and develop websites.
So what?
Using it

In any situation, see the real (as opposed to espoused) social roles and either play to them or use them to your advantage (eg. offering women a way out of disliked repression).

There is a lot of information about gender bias (and other forms of bias) available on the web and elsewhere. Know your rights and defend them.
What is the Social exchange theory ?
It grew out of the philosophy of utilitarianismAccording to this point of view, all social interaction can be viewed as a kind of economic interaction in which an individual or group obtain certain rewards , but only at certain costs An individual assesses the richness of the outcome in a given exchange situation noy soles in terms of rewards minus cost, but also in comparison with two other standards 1) the first stand is the comparison level (CL ) I.e.: wife might compare the outcome of her marriage with the outcome of the marriages that surround her. The CL is used to decide whether the person is receiving what he or she diservies 2) the second is the comparison level for alternatives ( Calalt) I.e.: Is used to decide if staying in the relationship is the right thing to to I.e.: if example is leaving a marriage will cause great financial hardship then staying might be better
- How the presence of large groups of people can impact our behavior o The bystander effect: what it means, why it occurs
the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
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