Social Psychology 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
aggression reduction
General to specific...ego depletion....relationship between behaviors in different situations
behaviors – specifically, negative behaviors directed against ppl because of their membership in a particular group.
an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex
sensory inputs transformed and organized into meaningful experiences
Tendency for individuals when frustrated or unhappy to displace agression on to groups that are disliked or powerless
Stanley Milgram
obedience experiments--learner sits in the electric chair and teacher shocks the learner when the learner gets a question wrong; he knew that people often comply with social pressures
Frustration-aggression Hypothesis
The hypothesis that frustration produces aggression.
loss of individual in a group
emotional release. the catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one "releases" aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.
self esteem
how favorably someone evaluates himself or herself
___________________ is the belief that one’s own ethnic or cultural group is superior.
Misinformation Effect
Tendency for false post-event information to become integrated into peoples memory of event.
An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event.
Behavior intended to harm others, either verbally or physically
Communal relationships
relationships in which people's primary concern is being responsive to the other person's needs
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Out-group Homogeneity
The tendency to percieve individuals who are not in our in-groups as being all the same
self serving bias
successful outcome = internal causesunsuccessful outcomes = external causes
Depressive realism
The tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments, attributions, and predictions.
Private Acceptance
COnforming to other people's behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right
Interaction: The effects of one variable depend on the level of another variable. For example, there is an interaction between the presence vs. absence of others and the difficulty level of a task.
Senstion seeking
high sensation seeking = high aggression, constant need for stimulation
people search for partners who are different from and complement their own traits
To turn attention inward and construct a concept of ourselves
the process of seeking our and interpreting situations so as to confirm one's self-concept
personal bias
tendency for people to attribute behavior of others, to person, not situation
pessimistic attribution style
internal, stable, global attributions habitually made for negative events.
the loss of self awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arrousal and anonymity
inhibitory control
The ability to control inappropriate responses or behaviors.
Dilution Effect
Tendency for neutral or irrelevant info to weaken judgement or impression
change in behavior in response to an explicit request from another person, typically an authority figure
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Group Polarization
when individuals in a group have similar, though not identical, views, their opinions become more extreme
Social Psychology
The subfield in psychology that deals with how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by our social interactions with others.
Automatic affect
automatic mixed emotions of like or dislike
Attitude Inoculation
Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available.
Social physiological influences on BP:

trait hostility/ anger expression
conflict- relationship positivity/negativity, marital strain. 
desired vs. actual amount of interpersonal contact.
perceived status with in social groups.
self-perception theory
the theory that people observe their own behavior to infer what they are thinking and how they are feeling
social-responsibility norm
people should help those who need their assistance
Intergroup contact leads to reduced prejudice when members of each group are of ____________ status or the __________ group is of higher status.
Equal ; minority
A disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects.
mirror-image perceptions
tendency to perceive own actions as good and enemy's actions as bad
demand characteristics
cues that tell participant what is expected
Consistency Information
Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
Recognition Heuristic
We are more likely to believe something we've heard many times
Equity Theory
the theory that people are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar for both partners
Perceptual readiness
The likelihood that a sensory input will be categorized in terms of a given category - how quickly you can recall info.
process in which we construct a sense of who we are through interaction with others
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later whith a larger request.
"Us" - people with whom we share a common identity
Availability heuristic
When we try to remember things we remember what was readily available.
conscious system
the part of the mind that performs complex operations
The way a question or an issue is posed; framing can influence people's decisions and expressed opinions.
types of relationships
exchange - keep it about equalcommunal - there for the other person
Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.
A. deindividuation; social facilitation
B. social facilitation; deindividuation
C. informational social influence; normative social influence
D. nor
C. informational social influence; normative social influence
Attachments marked by a sense of one's own unworthiness and anxiety, ambivalence, and possessiveness.
Relationship between Success and Failure

·      people fear failure and this deters them from trying. This is partly based on the false theory that winning and losing are negatively related. But in many domains those you lose the most also win the mose (ex. College applications, paper submissions, scholarship applications). In fact you have to lose to win, and the real determinant is how much you try.
Losing is a symptom of trying, and trying is how you succeed.
Social facilitation
Your behavior is based on the presence of other people; leading to improvement on simple or well learned tasks and worse performance on complex or unlearned tasks when other people are present.
- What fosters or contributes to obedience
i. Normative social influence
1. Group size
2. Unanimity
ii. Informational social influence
iii. Individual’s characteristics
iv. Characteristics of group members
1. Gender
2. Status
v. In-group/out-group
d. Characteristics of judgement
i. Ambiguity re correct response

situated self
a temporally based sense of who we are, associated with a lack of clear sense of identity
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
a theoretical model that posits two channels by which persuasive appeals lead to attitude change: a central route and a peripheral route
Factor 5: Evolution and Behavior
Evolutionary theory may explain many human behaviors- natural selection (plants and animals = survival and reproduction)- "Social Contract Theory"
what is observation learning?
we learn to imitate what we see
we think we are the shit of our schema and that people who arent in our schema are much different from us
Define: Instrumental Aggression
Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain
GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Incitives in Tensions-Reduction)
a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
eight symptoms of "groupthink"
1. Illusion of invulnerability 2. Unquestioned belief in the inherent morality of the group (i.e., overestimate group’s “might” and “right”) 3. Collective rationalization 4. Stereotypes of opponents (i.e., become close-minded) 5. Conformity pressure 6. Self-censorship 7. Illusion of unanimity 8. Self-appointed mindguards(i.e., pressures to uniformity)
What is meant by an interaction between a person and the situation? Name and provide examples of two types of interactions.
Interaction types include: different persons respond differently to the same situation; situations choose people; people choose situations; situations change people; people change situations; different situations prime different aspects of the same person.
Central Route of Persuasion
People focus on the content of the arguments, as occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication
Describe the characteristics of observational research. How is observational research typically conducted? What are different methods of conducting observational research?
This method is used to describe the nature of a phenomenon (Y). This method only involves one variable.Ethnograpy-understand a group or culture by observing on the inside without interfering Archival Analysis-look at old papers
The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to
A. experience any empathy for a stranger.
B. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
C. realize that the incident was really an e
B. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
what did Miligram's study conclude?
most will follow orders even if they are very uncomfortable with those orders
Zimbardo's white coat and hood study
Women who wore white coats and hoods delivered more and longer shocks than women who wore regular clothes and large nametags.
5 guidelines for conducting an ethical experiment
Procedures that cause intense pain or intense discomfort should be avoided, if at all possible. Experimenters should provide participants with the real option of quitting the experiment if it becomes too uncomfortable. Experimenters should be alert to alternative procedures to deception. Experimenters should spend considerable time with each participant at the close of the experimental session, carefully explaining the details of the experiment, its true purpose, the reasons for deception or discomfort, and so on. Experimenters should not undertake an experiment that employs deception or discomfort “just for the hell of it”.
Name and describe two of the reasons why people join groups, according to the textbook.
Students should state and describe two of the following goals for joining groups: to get things done, to make accurate decisions, to gain positions of leadership.
What is the liking norm? What four cues that can increase liking? How does this norm relate to advertising?
Norm: If you like someone, you should help them out.One important principle is attractivenessComplimentsFriendships or friendlinessTupperware PartiesAvon/Mary KaySimilarityJust like with social proofSimilar other validate our own beliefs, behaviors, etc.Ad Examples: sports stars, supermodels, attractive people in general
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