Social Psychology Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals
Emotional release. This view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one “releases” aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.
Nestor belongs to the cross-country ski club at his college but is not a member of the downhill ski club. In terms of basic social categories, Nestor's cross-country club members are the _____ and the members of the downhill ski club are the _____.A)soci
B)in-group; out-group
4. The catharsis hypothesis assumes that aggression is produced by frustration.             A)        True             B)        False
            B)        False
14. You overhear a casual acquaintance express approval of you in the coffee shop. You are most likely to think well of that acquaintance if             A)        you had learned an hour earlier that you had received an average grade
            B)        you had learned an hour earlier that you had failed a chemistry test.
5. People who seek intimacy, personal growth, and contribution to the community experience greater             A)        materialism             B)        quality of life.             C)        en
            B)        quality of life.
Physical attractiveness is:A)highly correlated with intelligence, mental health, and self-esteem.B)moderately correlated with intelligence, mental health, and self-esteem.C)highly correlated with social competence, assertiveness, and intelligence.D)not co
D)not correlated with intelligence, mental health, or self-esteem.
.The Stanford Prison Experiment:A)was conducted at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad, Iraq, by Stanford professor Philip Zimbardo, using American soldiers and Iraqi prisoners as research subjects.B)used a simulated electric shock machine to demonstrate the peo
D)involved Stanford University students playing the roles of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.
11. Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it 75 percent of the time. This would be an example of             A)        an inequitable relationship.            
            A)        an inequitable relationship.
3. Solving the pending global crisis will require             A)        increased technical efficiency.             B)        increased agricultural efficiency.             C)        modifying our
            D)        all of these.
2. The earth cannot support our present consumption indefinitely.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
9. When participants in Darley and Latane's seizure experiment were interviewed after debriefing from the experiment, they all said they thought the deception used by the experimenters __________ justified and that they __________ be willing to take par
            D)        was; would
17. Which of the following proverbs is most clearly supported by the research reported in this module of your textbook?             A)        You always love what you can't have.             B)        Opposites attr
            D)        Birds of a feather flock together.
_____ refers to the phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.A)The rule of reciprocityB)The actor-observe
D)Diffusion of responsibility
17. The GRIT model could be applied to the reduction of conflict between             A)        individuals.             B)        groups.             C)        nations.             D)
            D)        all of these.
10. Individuals in a state of flow, lose awareness of time and self.             A)        True             B)        False
            A)        True
8. Many conflicts contain a small core of truly incompatible ___________________________ surrounded by a larger exterior of ___________________________.             A)        individuals; cooperative motives             B)
D)        perceptions; incompatible actions
When Catherine decided to major in engineering her parents thought she should reconsider her decision because engineering majors are “logical, analytical, conservative, aggressive, and always male.” Her parents' view that all engineering majors are si
C)the out-group homogeneity effect.
9. The idea that we are attracted to people who are in some ways different from ourselves is an essential aspect of the             A)        companionate love hypothesis.             B)        matching phenomenon.
            C)        complementarity hypothesis.
11. The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level is known as             A)        the adaptation-level phenomenon.             B)        social compa
            A)        the adaptation-level phenomenon.
Research has found that physically attractive people tend to:A)be more intelligent.B)have better mental health.C)be less anxious in social situations.D)have much higher than average levels of self-esteem.
C)be less anxious in social situations.
4. Which of the following adolescents is most likely to be involved in negative acts as an adult? A)        Laura, who is too busy with dance team, friends, and homework to watch TV or play video games B)        Lou, who spends about thr
B)        Lou, who spends about three hours a night "gaming," and particularly enjoys "murder-and-mayhem" type games
According to the textbook, what helped John Gacy escape detection as a ruthless murderer for so many years?A)People tended to blame the victims rather than the person who murdered them.B)Rather than blame a specific person, people tended to blame society
D)Gacy's behavior in many situations contradicted the implicit personality theory that people have for a mass murderer.
11. A key factor in determining whether people will communicate constructively and thereby correct misperceptions is             A)        their trust that the opposing side is well-intentioned.             B)      
A)        their trust that the opposing side is well-intentioned.
In which of the following scenarios is the person MOST likely to be helped by other people?A)At a moderately crowded Greyhound bus station, a woman struggles to retrieve her suitcase from a man who shouts at her, “Do you understand? You're not leaving!
C)Carla's car won't restart and partially blocks the exit drive as her fellow employees are walking to their own cars.
social cognition
understanding people
Basking In Reflected Glory
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
cognitice dissonance
thoughts/values contradict actions resulting in personal discomfort
to reduce discomfort people might change behacior, attitude, or try to justify
individuals who respond with aggression to ego-threats
Unselfish regard for welfare of others.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Frustration-Aggression Principle
Frustration because blocked from goal=anger/aggression
Unconscious Processing
Unconscious influences occur without awarenessex: muscular feedback/old-word priming
the tendency to engage in self-defeating behaviors in order to prevent others from drawing unwanted attributions about the self as a result of poor performance
stereotype threat
self-confirming apprehension that one will be judged based on negative stereotypes.
remember math with girls.
What are the differences between self-schematics and self-aschematics?

If we perceive that an individual
performing an action has a choice on whether to perform that action or not, we
perceive it as internal attribution. 

gender identity
identification with the same-sex parent provides our sense of being a male or female
changing behavior in response to a demand from an authority figure
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
solidarity, loyalty, and a sense of group membership
Super-ordinate Goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
external attributions
due to something in the environment
a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interest.
emotional release. The ___ view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one "releases" aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression
Explanatory Style
a person’s habitual way of explaining events, typically assessed along three dimensions: 1.internal/external,
3. global/specific.

people can be trained to adopt more productive attributional tendencies

boys and girls learn different attributional beliefs about academic outcomes….
boys=success due to ability while failure due to insufficient effort
girls=feedback is the reverse.
natural selection
the evolutionary process by which heritable traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments are passed to ensuing generations.
A person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination.
Athletic stereotypes and race

o      White basketball players – disciplined, unselfish, smart, fundamentally sound
o      Black basketball players – athletic, naturally gifted, agile, fast, tall, physical
o      This is strange because people generally discrimate against blacks using the arugment that they are biologically inferior whereas these stereotypes imply they are biologically superior and that whites work harder to be smart, unselfish, etc.
Persuasive Communication
Communication (e.g., a speech or television ad) advocating a particular side of an issue
When people are frustrated or unhappy, they are more likely to blame (place aggression) onto out-groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless
Inoculation effect
Approach to convincing people to change their minds about something by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking it
reciprocal determinism
process of interacting with our environment
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Reciprocity Norm
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those ho have helped them.
attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
social perceptions
the processes by which we form impressions, make judgments, and develop attitudes about the people and events that constitute our social world
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 733)
being next to someone on a regular basis
What is the phenomenon of spreading alternatives? Which paradigm demonstrates this?
free choice
Growth Mindset
The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
contingencies of self-worth
an account of self-esteem maintaining that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures in domains on which a person has based his or her self-worth
emotional amplification
a ratcheting up of an emotional reaction to an event that is proportional to how easy it is to imagine the event not happening
social facilitation
(1) original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. (2) Current meaning: the strenghening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presences of others.
upward social comparison
comparing one's own achievements with the achievements of others who we believe are outperforming us
Primacy effect
the tendency to form opinions about others based on first impressions
the tendency, once an event has occurred, to overestimate our ability to have foreseen the outcome
hindsight bias
External Attribution
The inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in. The assumption is that more people would respond the same way if in that situation.
Weapons Effect
the tendency that the likelihood of aggression will increase by the mere presence of weapons.
chronic stress
-------s refers to stress that does not end, like an abusive relationship that grinds the individual down until his or her resistance is eroded. ------ can result in serious systemic diseases such as diabetes, decreased immune system functioning, or cardiovascular disease.
Egocentric Thought
Most people have a tendency to perceive themselves as more central to events than is actually the case. Barnum statement: personality description vague enough to be true to almost anyone (horoscopes)
group polarization
the tendency of a group whose members lean in the same direction on a particular issue to become more extreme in its views after discussing the issue as a group
Reducing aggression
when Kris gets angry he throws and hits things
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
the tendency for people to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other's behavior
Self-Perception Theory
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
loss-framed appeal
focuses on the negative, such as the potential for getting cavities if you do not brush and floss your teeth everyday
what happens with arousal?
heightens emotions depending how its interpreted.
Self-awareness theory
The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
actor-observer difference
Actors tend to blame causes of their behavior on a situation. Observers end to blame the actors disposition.
Reactance Theory
The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior
Just-world Hypothesis
Implies that many of us have a deep-seated need to percieve the world as fair-all things happen for a reason.

\"Blaming the victim\"
External Validity:
results can be the same by other participants
Rejection, exclusion, and taunting
leads to hostility and violent behaviors (Columbine shootings)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when 2 of our thoughts are incosistent
What are the three processes that maintain stereotypes when they should be disconfirmed? What experiment demonstrated that stereotypes can create self-fulfilling prophecies?
AttributionsSubtypingTendency to view stereotype-inconsistent individuals as “exceptions to the rule”Particularly likely with radical deviation from the stereotypePrevents your stereotype schema from needing revisionStereotypes provide expectations which can contribute to SFPsWord, Zanna, & Cooper (1974) Had Ps act as interviewers for Black and White job candidatesBehavior was coded for seating distance, length of interview, and speech errors (which indicate anxiety)
need to belong
a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions
person choose the situation
ex:people who are more into taking risks will go whitewater rafting
normative influence
desire to be linkedgroup size (up to 3 or 4), group is important, group is close (proximity), group is unanimous, leads to public acceptance, majority influence stronger
Pluralistic Ignorance
Error of assuming that no one in the group percieves things as we do.
The ultimate attribution error
in an ambiguous situation, people tend to make attributions consistent with their prejudices
5. Identify and describe the frustration aggression hypothesis and the effect of negative affect on aggression. Describe a study that demonstrates each. And, how can thoughts, specifically when people are drinking alcohol, affect aggression?
When a desirable goal is frustrated, this causes aggressionPut kids in front of a room of attractive toysIV: How long the kids waited to play½ played right away, ½ had to wait a long timeDV: how did the kids play?Those who waited ran in and played very aggressively with the toys, destroying someHad confederates cut into linesPeople near the front of lines became more upset when cut in front of than people later in the linesShowed that aggression is greater when frustration is greaterFrustration is a function of how close to the goal you areHad volunteers make calls for charity donationsThey were led to expect very high or low success ratesSuccess rates were actually very low Those who expected success were more upset than those who did notSo, unexpected frustration leads to increased aggressionNegative Affect Argues that anything that causes negative affect leads to aggression Frustration is just one thing that causes negative affectE.g., pain, offensive odors, loud noises, air pollution, heatIV: Manipulated temperature of a room while Ps were taking a testDV: self-report of aggression and rating of their hostility towards a strangerResults: Individuals reported feeling more aggressive and acted more aggressive when in a hot roomCognitions actually determine the kind and amount of aggression that occursAlcohol, like high arousal, can impair the cognitive control of aggressionAlcohol consumption often increases aggressive behaviorHow does alcohol increase aggression?Alcohol reduces anxiety, which lowers inhibitions against aggressionIntoxication causes alcohol myopia, a disruption in the way we process information. Narrows the focus of attention to only the most salient aspects of the situation
Sweeney & Gruber (1984) -- Watergate Study
Illustration of the Potential Cumulative Effects of Attitudes and Social Influence
Selective Exposure -- Nixon supporters tended to show the least amount of exposure, knowledge, and intention to change their behavior as a result of Watergate -- their prior attitudes influenced their news gathering behavior. 
Barker, Dembo, and Lewin (1941)Frustration-aggressionchildren and toys
frustrated a group of children by keeping a room of very attractive toys out of their reach for a long wait; when they finally got to play with them, they played much more destructively than did the control group.
Cognitive dissonance theories
We humans are motivated not so much to be right as to believe we are right; The need to reduce dissonance (the need to convince oneself that one is right or good) leads to behavior that is maladaptive and therefore irrational
What is the bystander effect?
When people stand by and watch, but not help (Example: a fight)
Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1963) rats raised in isolation, then introduced to other rats
showed that rats raised in isolation attack fellow rats using the same patterns that experienced rats do, showing that aggression does not need to be learned.
What is attributional ambiguity? Describe one study that shows a benefit of this kind of ambiguity. What is the potential downside to this type of ambiguity?
Most of the time, more than one attribution is possibleFor example, Simon CowellHe’s a jerkHe’s honestPrejudice can create attributional ambiguityIs negative feedback due to bad performance or prejudice?Stigma can protect self-esteem by allowing stigmatized individuals to attribute negative feedback to prejudice E.g., I’m not bad at this, this person is just prejudicedCrocker, Voelkl, Testa, & Major (1991)Female Ps received negative feedbackIV: whether or not they thought the experimenter was prejudicedDV: mood and attribution of feedback to prejudiceResults – negative feedback from a prejudiced person caused less depressed feelings and more attribution to prejudice
“Why Susie Sells Seashells by the Seashore” (Pelham et al. 2002)

o      Study 1 – Found the most common male and female names that share first three letter with a Top 40 population city. Results: people were disproportionately more likely to live in cities that resembled their first names
o      Study 2 – Looked at 8 most populous states. Found people with the same first few letters in their last name were disproportionately likely to live in these states
o      Study 3 – 8 largest cities in Canada. Same last name effect
o      Study 4 – Looked at FL, GA, LA, VA, KY. People with similar first names were unusually likely to live in that state (men and women)
o      Study 5 – Looked at all U.S. cities names “St. __” (N = 35). People with the name were disproportionately more likely to live in cities with that name. Also, people with “Saint” in their name disproportionately likely to live in these cities.
o      Study 6 – Looked at birthdays…are people more likely to live in towns that resemble their birthdays? Yes
o      Study 7 – Looked at most common male and female names that resembled “Lawyer” or “Dentist”. Men and women were disproportionately likely to do the job that resembled their name (though small effect)
o      Study 8 – Georges and Geoffreys were disproportionately likely to publish articles in the geosciences.
o      Study 9 – People with first or last name starting with “H” or “R”. More likely to own hardware stores and roofing companies respectively
o      Conclusions – Implicit egotism effects receive support. Experiments also converge with these findings.
What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?
The tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people's behavior.
Alex thinks drinking sugar-laden sodas is bad for you but other players of his hockey team insist that it is not.  Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if
A. he has publicly voiced his opinion on this issue.
B. there is obvious disagreement among
C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.
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