A Theory of Justice | Study Guide

John Rawls

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John Rawls, Part 3, Chapter 9 n a just society the liberties of equalcitizenship are taken as settled. Sources: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Copyright © 2018 Course Hero, Inc. Intuitionism People naturally know what is fair and what is just. Utilitarianism Ethics are based on what is good for society as a whole. Social Contract Theory Agreeing to form societies leads to political obligations. Key Concepts A society in which citizens and institutions are guided by justice Well-Ordered Society Fairness; the main virtue of all institutions in a well-ordered society Justice Public systems of rules and regulations that form a society’s basic structure Institutions The allocation of resources in society in order to create economic equality Distributive Justice Key Terms An American political philosopher, Rawls spent20 years developing his refutation of the ethics of utilitarianism prior to the publication of A Theory of Justice. The enormous response to the text made Rawls, who continued to revise his ideas, one of the most important philosophers of the late 20th century. JOHN RAWLS1921–2002 Author Rawls galvanized academia with his claim that justice equals fairness. Arguing that individual liberty and social responsibility are the proper basis of society, Rawls’s defense of liberal egalitarianism continues to inform discourse and policy today. Justice asFairness MAIN IDEAS Economic inequalities are permissible only if they benefit all of society. Difference Principle The basis of a just society is equal and nonnegotiable individual liberty. Primacy of Liberty People could create true justice if they were ignorant of personal interests. Veil ofIgnorance English Original Language 1971 Year Published John Rawls Author A Theoryof Justice Political Science Nonfiction

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