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Analects | Book 1 | Summary



Book 1 introduces many of the main ideas in the Confucian philosophy. The gentleman (ideal person) appears in the very first section of text—known as a chapter, although most comprise only a few lines. The concepts of filial piety—that children must respect and revere their parents and other authority figures—and humaneness, or virtuous thought and action, are introduced in the second chapter. Chapter 5 is the first to address the proper governance of a country, a topic that runs throughout the collection. The importance of ritual, which prescribes all aspects of gentlemanly and cultured interactions, not just religious rituals, is addressed in Chapters 12 and 13.

One of a gentleman's primary goals is achieving humaneness (ren or jen), or virtuousness in thought and action. Related to this concept is ritual (li). Ritual helps support a gentleman's practice of humaneness: Following prescribed ways of behaving in various situations help maintain courtesy, respect, and honor in relations with other people and the spirit world. Study and a genuine fondness for learning develop humaneness and other qualities of a gentleman.

The quotation from the Master (Master Kong, or Confucius) that starts the book introduces an important quality of a gentleman: to not be "resentful at others' failure to appreciate one." This idea is repeated and expanded upon more than once, including in Chapter 16 at the end of Book 1. It illustrates an underlying principle in Confucian philosophy of focusing on improving oneself instead of dwelling on the external. Other important qualities of personal conduct are also explored, including loyalty, good faith, trustworthiness, and a willingness to correct one's mistakes. Study and a "fondness for learning" are essential for achieving these ideals, although understanding that comes through one's experience can also be valuable.

Book 1 also demonstrates the variety of sources quoted in The Analects, with pronouncements coming not only from "the Master" but also from his followers and students. A few of these were also afforded the title of Master, showing they later became important teachers of Confucianism themselves. Often-quoted followers can be seen to have their own focuses—for example, Master Zeng's interest in filial piety can be observed in his first statement in Chapter 2. Zixia was an important follower who had an interest in study, and Zigong's interactions can be better understood by knowing he became a successful diplomat in Lu during the Master's lifetime.


The gentleman (from the Chinese junzi or chun-tzu), sometimes translated as the ideal person or ideal scholar, is a central concept in Confucian philosophy. The gentleman is an ideal of virtuous thought and behavior, who through self-development can also earn respect and social status. Obviously, the writers of these principles thought of them applying only to men, and women, when they are mentioned, are portrayed as inferior. However, setting that aside, Confucianism still contains many valuable principles that can be applied to modern life.

Even before Confucianism, honoring parents and the family was central to Chinese culture, but Confucian philosophy extended filial piety to other figures of authority, including in government. In Chapter 2 Master You expresses the view that following the root principle of respecting and honoring family elders would naturally result in respecting and honoring civil authorities. In Chapter 11 the Master supports a fairly restrictive application of filial piety: A son cannot make any changes to the "ways of his father" for three years after his death.

Applying these principles to every aspect of life was no small goal, requiring dedication and devotion. It is clear from some of the Master's statements that even he felt he hadn't fully achieved his ideals after practicing them all his life. Nonetheless, they were still worth practicing in the quest for a virtuous life and harmonious society.

The quotations exchanged by Zigong and the Master in Chapter 15 come from the Book of Songs (also called Book of Poetry), an ancient collection of poems from the Zhou (Chau) dynasty that was already a classic in the Master's time. Pieces of poems were often quoted to make or support a point. Here, the two quote a number of lines about self-improvement that build on one another, and the Master praises Zigong's knowledge of the Songs, using his personal name, Si (Ts'ze), as appropriate for a master addressing a student.

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