Civilization and Its Discontents | Study Guide

Sigmund Freud

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Sigmund Freud, Chapter 5 ivilized man has traded in a portion of his chances for happiness for a certain measure of security. Sources: Encyclopaedia Britannica, New York Times, PBS Copyright © 2018 Course Hero, Inc. Everything Is about Sex Freud’s view of sexuality eventually grew to include love. Controversies Religion Is an Illusion Freud thought religion stems from a wish for a cosmic father figure. Women Have Penis Envy Freud’s detractors say he totally misunderstood female sexuality. Emotional disturbances caused by repression of natural drives for sex and aggression Neurosis Psychological defense; protects a person by blocking traumatic memories and feelings Repression Also called Thanatos; a person’s instinct for aggression and destruction Death Drive Also called Eros; a person’s instinct for self-preservation and reproduction Life Drive Key Terms Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, is famous for his theory that repression of unconscious sexual and aggressive urges can lead to neurotic disturbances. The year before his death Freud was forced to flee to England from his native Austria when Hitler invaded and threatened Jews like Freud and his family. SIGMUND FREUD1856–1939 Author A civilization can be secure only when individuals suppress their own urges. Society’s Demands Prevent Happiness People must give up their freedom to enjoy the benefits of living in a group. Civilization Requires a Trade-Off Civilization tames sex and aggression by making people feel guilty about them. Culture Turns People’s Urges against Them As a psychiatrist, Freud uses wisdom gleaned from more than two decades of clinical experience to psychoanalyze civilization itself—and concludes it is the main obstacle to happiness. Freud argues that civilization restricts individual urges, leading to misery and neurosis. Civilization Makes Happiness Impossible OVERVIEW German Original Language 1930 Year Published Sigmund Freud Author Civilization and Its Discontents Psychology Nonfiction

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