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New Testament | 2 Timothy | Summary



  • Although the author, writing as Paul, is in prison and suffering, he does not want Timothy to be ashamed about this undignified circumstance because the call from God allows him to suffer without shame.
  • Timothy should focus on sound teaching from the author.
  • Timothy should be like a soldier, an athlete, or a farmer: by putting in the necessary work, even when it is challenging, he will earn his reward.
  • Hymenaeus and Philetus have been spreading an incorrect understanding of the resurrection, saying it has already taken place, and the author compares their misguided teaching to "gangrene" (2 Timothy 2:17).
  • Suffering is an inevitable part of following Christ, so Timothy should continue to hold on to the tradition embodied in the sacred writings.
  • Like an athlete, the author says he has fought and run the race, and he is looking ahead to a crown of righteousness.
  • The author writes he has been abandoned by several companions, but he looks forward to seeing Mark.


One of the most important aspects of this letter is its commentary on Christian suffering. It offers insight into the way the author understood the relationship between the gospel and hardships. Put otherwise, the letter offers a powerful summary of the way an early Christ-believer could view difficult experiences in light of teachings about Christ and the resurrection.

Suffering is apparently an unavoidable part of following Christ, but it is not without purpose. Because the author, identifying himself as Paul, has "fought the good fight" and "finished the race," he anticipates receiving a heavenly crown in the resurrection or at the last judgment (2 Timothy 4:7). His suffering can even serve as an inspirational example for others. His suffering has demonstrated to him that no matter what happens, Christ will not abandon him.

The letter employs a number of powerful similes to encourage endurance, and this feature can help scholars understand the cultural context of the letter and its author. 2 Timothy 2 exhorts Timothy to be like a "good soldier," like "an athlete," and "like a farmer" (2 Timothy 2:3, 5, 6). All three of these images call to mind someone who puts up with temporary difficulties for the sake of a larger goal. They are also images commonly used in Greek philosophical texts to inspire people to continue striving for a life of virtue even if it is difficult. Some scholars think the use of these similes in 2 Timothy reflects its composition in a late 1st-century community of Christ-believers who were seeking ways to reconcile their Christ-belief with some aspects of Greek literary or philosophical culture.

Additionally, 2 Timothy offers insight into what character traits are required (or at least desirable) for an early Christian community member. It talks about traits and attributes that are important for believers such as Timothy, who does not seem to hold any formal office but is committed to teaching the gospel. Anyone who is "the Lord's servant" should teach with kindness, patience, and gentleness (2 Timothy 2:24–25). While 1 Timothy seems concerned to build a Christian community and leadership that does not give Christ-belief a bad reputation or repel people, 2 Timothy gives more attention to ways of attracting and inviting new believers.

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