Course Hero. "Notes from Underground Study Guide." Course Hero. 22 Mar. 2018. Web. 2 July 2022. <https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Notes-from-Underground/>.
Course Hero. (2018, March 22). Notes from Underground Study Guide. In Course Hero. Retrieved July 2, 2022, from https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Notes-from-Underground/
(Course Hero, 2018)
Course Hero. "Notes from Underground Study Guide." March 22, 2018. Accessed July 2, 2022. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Notes-from-Underground/.
Course Hero, "Notes from Underground Study Guide," March 22, 2018, accessed July 2, 2022, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Notes-from-Underground/.
The narrator composes the novel as a kind of diary consisting of notes he writes about his life and thoughts. The diary form allows the narrator to reveal his innermost being, with all its flaws and contradictions. In revealing himself in this way, the narrator confesses to some rather vile ideas and motivations and to some terrible deeds. Because a diary is supposed to be private, the narrator feels free to confess his bad behavior and the humiliations he's suffered.
The diary form also allows the narrator to construct an imagined audience. The narrator argues with figments of his brain that represent specific social groups, sometimes explaining their views of the world and then raging furiously against them.
Notes from Underground is considered to be one of the first existential novels. Existentialism is a philosophy that states humans must seek to find meaning, identity, and morality in a meaningless and incomprehensible universe. The existential person struggles to understand who he or she is and how this identity fits into an unknowable universe. Because the universe is beyond knowing, the existentialist also struggles to understand what constitutes moral action. If the universe is without meaning, is all action permitted? For an existentialist the foundation of being and action is free will—the paramount good. As there are no "given" morals in this indifferent universe, the existentialist must assume responsibility for his or her actions—for the consequences (morality) of exerting her or his free will. The existentialist must also take responsibility for creating meaning in his or her own life.
In this novel the narrator insists on acting according to his free will and rails against any social construct that impedes it. That his actions are sometimes bizarre, senseless, or cruel exemplifies his freedom and illuminates the search for meaning in his life. Throughout the book the narrator justifies his motivations and actions as reflections of his free will, his struggle to shape his identity, and his search for meaning in the world and human life. The Underground Man lives alone, and his isolation helps him explore the true nature of his being and of human nature in relation to others and society.
The first part of Notes from Underground is a response to rational egoism, the prevailing social theory in Russia, as well as in Europe, in the 1860s. Rational egoism is a belief humans are innately good and if they always act rationally and in their best self-interests the world would become a utopia—or perfect society—of reason and harmony. The rational egoists were convinced people could be taught to act with self-interested rationality, and once that was accomplished, the fruits of rationality (particularly science) would lead ultimately to a perfect utopian society. In Russia the foremost spokesman for the benefits of rational egoism was Russian philosopher Nikolay Chernyshevsky, who popularized his ideas in his 1863 book What Is to Be Done?
Fyodor Dostoevsky vehemently opposed this rational, utopian vision. For him humans are innately irrational, capricious, and evil. Dostoevsky describes humans as he experienced them in real life. He insists they are unstable and destructive, acting more from dark impulses than from enlightened rational thought. His loathing of rational egoism motivated Dostoevsky to write Notes from Underground, in which he dissects and lampoons the regimentation and absurdity of rational egoism and its wholly unrealistic notion of human nature. For Dostoevsky the ultimate good in human nature is free will. One of the glaring flaws in rational egoism was its elimination of free will, which had to be sacrificed to determined rational action. In this novel Dostoevsky reveals with wit and passion how misguided this philosophy is. In the words of critic Ernest J. Simmons, the hero of Notes from Underground instead "finally realizes ... the fundamental opposition of his nature is one between will and reason," a contradiction he cannot resolve.
In idealizing reason and self-interest to the exclusion of all else, the rational egoists also undermined ethics and moral social values. In Dostoevsky's view altruism, compassion, and community would be swept aside to make way for morally repellent, regimentally rational selfishness. Dostoevsky uses all his powers of argument and imagination to show how inhuman and ultimately foolhardy this worldview is.
It is worth noting, however, rational egoism prevails among some thinkers. It is the philosophy expounded by Russian novelist Ayn Rand, author of The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957), and is the foundation of much of libertarian (referring to a political philosophy that advocates minimal government intervention in the lives of citizens) economics and politics.
The second part of Notes from Underground recounts events that took place in the 1840s, 20 years before Part 1. Here Dostoevsky lampoons the ideas of the romantics, who dominated Russian and European culture during this period. Romanticism emphasized deeply felt emotion as the truest expression of human nature. Romantics of the period elevated nature, the simple life, and tradition as the highest human good.
The romantics rejected the strictly rational philosophy that characterized the Enlightenment of the late 18th century. In its place the romantics exalted instinct, intuition, and feeling. They rejected scientific and technological progress that tended to remove humans from a natural and happy immersion in the beauty of the natural world. The romantics thought such refined sensibilities gave them a natural "superiority" over the general run of people, especially those who were less educated and well read. Romantic writers exalted the spirit of the extraordinary individual who with his more finely wrought emotions existed far above the dull pettiness of everyday life.
Russian romanticism produced some of the nation's greatest literature, especially the poems and stories of Alexander Pushkin (1799–1837). Although Pushkin and other literary luminaries might have lived spiritually exalted lives, most ordinary people who adopted the ideas of romanticism based their thoughts and actions on those they read about in romantic literature. As Dostoevsky reveals repeatedly, appearing "literary" was of paramount importance to people who presumed to be romantics. In Dostoevsky's view, because they got their romantic ideas secondhand, people who assumed the mantle of romanticism were spiritually starved. Their inner lives were trivial and second-rate, and they lacked the drive and conviction of individuals capable of forceful action in the real world. Dostoevsky refers to Russian romantics as "cowards and slaves." They have no real ideas of their own; their heads are filled with notions and fantasies taken from books. As portrayed by Dostoevsky, they are rather ridiculous.
St. Petersburg, Russia, was founded by Czar Peter I (Peter the Great, 1672–1725) in May 1703 and became Russia's capital in 1712. It lies over 400 miles northwest of Moscow on the Neva River. An admirer of European culture, including its elegant architecture, Peter the Great wanted his new capital to be an elegant mix of Russian and European styles. The city was a carefully planned metropolis of large squares and wide boulevards, reflecting the progressive sophistication and beauty of European cities. Dostoevsky despised St. Petersburg because it represented "alien" European rather than true Russian culture.
Dostoevsky also reviled the Crystal Palace, a feeling reflected by the Underground Man in Notes from Underground. The Crystal Palace was built in London for the Great Exhibition (like a World's Fair) of 1851. The edifice was considered an engineering marvel in its day. The building was designed as a prefabricated metal grid of many identical shapes into which millions of identical panes of glass were inserted. The uniformity of its components allowed the building to be extended by any number of added modules. When it was complete, the Crystal Palace was 1,848 feet long and 408 feet wide, with a ceiling towering more than 100 feet above the floor. The Great Exhibition showcased the engineering "progress" of that time, with 14,000 exhibits showing off inventions and "new technologies."
Dostoevsky disliked the structure for its rigid modularity and the uniformity of its parts but also for the "scientific progress" it celebrated. In addition, the Crystal Palace was praised by Nikolay Chernyshevsky as a "miracle of art, beauty, and splendor," and Dostoevsky felt equal revulsion for the other writer's beliefs.
This novel is a critique of social ideas that were generally accepted in Russia during the 1840s and 1860s. In Notes from Underground Dostoevsky employs several literary techniques to criticize or lampoon the popular ideas he loathes.
The text contains numerous allusions or references to aspects of Russian culture, literary works, and historical events.