Course Hero. "Old Testament Study Guide." Course Hero. 27 Apr. 2018. Web. 25 June 2018. <https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Old-Testament/>.
Course Hero. (2018, April 27). Old Testament Study Guide. In Course Hero. Retrieved June 25, 2018, from https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Old-Testament/
(Course Hero, 2018)
Course Hero. "Old Testament Study Guide." April 27, 2018. Accessed June 25, 2018. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Old-Testament/.
Course Hero, "Old Testament Study Guide," April 27, 2018, accessed June 25, 2018, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Old-Testament/.
Haggai's prophetic messages call for the restoration of the two central institutions of Jerusalem, the temple of Yahweh and the Davidic dynasty. The two Judean leaders he addresses—Joshua and Zerubbabel—represent these institutions. According to 1 Chronicles 6:13, Joshua, son of Jehozadak, was the grandson of the last high priest to serve in the temple in Jerusalem before the destruction of the city and exile of its people. Upon returning from exile, Joshua reclaimed his hereditary office. Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel was the grandson of King Jehoiachin, the second-to-last King of Judah, and thus a potential heir to the Davidic throne.
According to Ezra 1:1–4, the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple was sanctioned by King Cyrus of Persia. In Haggai the rebuilding has been delayed nearly two decades. In Ezra, work on the temple is said to begin soon after the exiles returned, c. 536 BCE, but resistance from enemies of Judah brought work on the temple to a halt for many years, and Haggai prophesied that work must resume after this hiatus (Ezra 5:1). There is some discrepancy between these accounts, but Ezra nonetheless places Haggai's prophecy and the completion of the temple at the same time.
Haggai's final passage addresses the more provocative topic, Zerubbabel and the restoration of monarchic rule in Jerusalem. After Yahweh reorders the political status quo, overthrowing nations and kingdoms, Zerubbabel will be made like Yahweh's "signet ring." This language, referring to a sealing stone worn on a ring, alludes to royalty (compare Jeremiah 22:24–30). Although such expectations for Zerubbabel are found in both Haggai and Zechariah, after his early leadership in Jerusalem he disappears from the historical record entirely, and his ultimate fate is unknown.