On the Origin of Species | Study Guide

Charles Darwin

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Sources: Charles Darwin: A Celebration of His Life and Legacy by James Bradley, Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence by Peter J. Bowler, Encyclopaedia Britannica Copyright © 2018 Course Hero, Inc. Charles Darwin, Chapter 13 here is a striking parallelism in the laws of life throughout time and space. Main Ideas Common Ancestors Different species descended from common ancestors with which they still share traits. Uniformitarianism Changes result from consistent and continuous scientific processes like evolution. Natural Selection Genetic variations that allow organisms to survive in their environments get passed on to future generations. On the Origin of Speciesby the Numbers Years Darwin spent aboard the HMS Beagle Versions of On the Origin of Species written by Darwin Years between the end of the HMS Beagle voyage and the publication of On the Origin of Species Year the U.S. Supreme Court struck down an Arkansas law that made it illegal to teach evolution—a theory first described by Darwin—in public schools and universities in Epperson v. Arkansas 1968 5 6 26 Darwin is known for his geological and naturalist work but is remembered most for his presentation of the theory of evolution and natural selection in On the Origin of Species. He conceptualized these ideas after his voyage on the HMS Beagle and spent years defending them. CHARLES DARWIN1809–82 Author Based on observations Darwin made while on the HMS Beagle, On the Origin of Species details his theory of natural selection. The work draws on observations from the trip, utilizing geological and natural processes to explain his ideas. Darwin addresses critics of his theory and concludes that the argument for natural selection is sound. A Theory of Adaptation & Survival TIMELINE OF INFLUENCE & CONTROVERSY 1830–33 Geologist Charles Lyell puts forth the theory of uniformitarianism, which assumes that geological processes have remained the same throughout the history of Earth and rejects a religious origin. 1859 Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species and receives support from contemporary scientists. 1860 Philosopher Bishop Samuel Wilberforce and biologist Thomas Huxley debate whether evolution can coexist with the Bible. 1860s Herbert Spencer promotes a racist and imperialist view now known as social Darwinism. 1871 Darwin publishes The Descent of Man, leading newspapers to erroneously conclude that humans are directly related to apes. Key Figures Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Early theorist of species formation Charles Lyell Author of the uniformitarian principle Alfred Russel Wallace Biologist and originator of natural selection theory INFLUENCE COLLEAGUES COLLEAGUES OPPOSING THEORY Charles Darwin Geologist and naturalist Thomas Huxley Proponent of evolution English Original Language 1859 Year Published Charles Darwin Author On the Origin of Species Nature Nonfiction

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