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Orientalism | Key Figures

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Key Figure Description
Michel Foucault Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, historian, and anthropologist in the mid-20th century. Read More
Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss was a 20th-century anthropologist and one of the leading proponents of structuralism—the study of cultural form and structure. Read More
Karl Marx Karl Marx was a 19th-century German philosopher. He is best known for The Communist Manifesto, which formed the basis of the socialist movement. Read More
Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri was a 13th-century Italian poet best known for his work The Divine Comedy.
Abraham-Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron Abraham-Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron was an 18th-century linguist who first translated the Zoroastrian text, Avesta. He also wrote numerous others texts on the Orient.
Arthur James Balfour Arthur James Balfour was an English politician who officially supported Zionism after World War I.
Morroe Berger Morroe Berger was a 20th-century sociologist specializing in the Middle East. He served as a professor at Princeton University and wrote a number of influential books on the subject.
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte was a 19th-century French military leader who led a campaign in Egypt to support French interests.
François-René, Vicomte de Chateaubriand François-René, Vicomte de Chateaubriand was a 19th-century French romantic author.
Geoffrey Chaucer Geoffrey Chaucer was a 14th-century English poet, best known for his work The Canterbury Tales.
Evelyn Baring, Lord Cromer Evelyn Baring, Lord Cromer, was a 19th-century British diplomat who served in Egypt for 24 years. His influence fundamentally shaped the rise of the country.
Benjamin Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli was a 19th-century British statesman of Jewish birth.
Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb was a 20th-century Scottish Orientalist scholar. He worked as a professor and produced numerous books on the topic.
William Jones William Jones was an 18th-century British Orientalist.
Rudyard Kipling Rudyard Kipling was a 19th-century British poet and novelist, best known for his stories of British imperialism.
Edward Lane Edward Lane was a prominent Orientalist in the 19th century. After living in Egypt, he produced the work Modern Egyptians and a censored translation of The Arabian Nights.
Ferdinand de Lesseps Ferdinand De Lesseps was a 19th-century French diplomat who was instrumental in the building of the Suez Canal in Egypt.
Anwar Abdel Malek Anwar Abdel Malek was a 20th-century political scientist specializing in the Middle East. He was highly influential in some of Said's later works.
Louis Massignon Louis Massignon was a 20th-century scholar who focused on creating a mutual understanding between Catholics, other Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
Simon Ockley Simon Ockley was an 18th-century British Orientalist. He worked as a professor and is best known for his work History of the Saracens.
Ernest Renan Ernest Renan was a 19th-century philosopher, historian, and Orientalist who became involved in French politics prior to the formation of the Third Republic.
Silvestre de Sacy Silvestre de Sacy was a 19th-century French Orientalist and a member of the French government.
Edward Said Edward Said is the author of Orientalism.
William Robertson Smith William Robertson Smith was a scholar who wrote on "kinship and marriage customs" of the Orient.
Constantin-François de Chasseboeuf, comte de Volney Constantin-François de Chasseboeuf, comte de Volney, was a 19th-century French Orientalist, historian, and philosopher.
Jacques Waardenburg Jacques Waardenburg was a 20th-century Dutch religious scholar who focused on Islam and the relationship between Muslim and Christian countries.
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