The Autobiography of Malcolm X | Study Guide

Malcolm X and Alex Haley

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the-autobiography-of-malcolm-x-malcolm-x-alex-haleyAge of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. when they were assassinated39Years Malcolm X served in prison for larceny6.5Years Elijah Muhammad claimed the white devilswould reign6,000Year a movie based on Malcolm Xs life and directed by Spike Lee was released1992The Autobiography of Malcolm Xby the NumbersThemesRacism & PrejudiceSystemic racism and individual prejudice oppresses minority racial groups.Separatism & UnityMalcolm X first believed in black separatism but later thought people of all races could unite. Suspicion & IdealismHaving lost his idealism in adulthood, Malcolm X regained it on his pilgrimage to Mecca. Conversion & ReinventionFrom hustler to minister to civil rights leader, Malcolm X converted and reinvented himself multiple times. Sources:, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Copyright © 2017 Course Hero, Inc.Malcolm Little Young Malcolms family suffered at the hands of racist hate groups, who burned their house down and likely murdered Malcolm's father in 1931. RedAt 15 Malcolm quit school, moved to Boston, and became Red, a shoe shiner and dancer on the lindy-hopping scene.Detroit RedIn Harlem, Malcolm became Detroit Red, a drug dealer and head of a burglary ring.SatanImprisoned for burglary in 1946, anti-religious Malcolm earned the nickname Satan, but after reading about the Nation of Islam and black nationalism, he converted.12Malcolm XReleased in 1952, he became the controversial Malcolm X—a high-ranking Nation of Islam minister and electrifying public speaker for black power and separatism.El-Hajj Malik el-ShabazzMalcolm split with the Nation of Islam in 1963 and embraced racial unity on a pilgrimage to Mecca, but he was assassinated in 1965.4356Young Malcolm Little lost his family after they were terrorized by white supremacists in Depression-era Nebraska. Involved in crime as a young man, Malcolm found his truth in Islam and black nationalism while imprisoned in Massachusetts. Thus began his transformation into Malcolm X, the foremost black nationalist leader in 1960s America.The Transformation of a LeaderOVERVIEWKey FiguresBetty ShabazzDevoted member of the Nation of IslamLouise LittleIntuitive West Indian woman Elijah MuhammadLeader of the Nation of Islam Malcolm XNarrator; devotes his life to black nationalism after leaving prisonEarl LittleOutspoken, proud Baptist ministerSPOUSESDISCIPLEFATHERMOTHERMalcolm X, Chapter 17y whole life had been a chronology ofchanges.Malcolm Xs experiences of racism and poverty led him to embrace the Nation of Islam and ideas of racial separation, setting him apart from his counterpart Martin Luther King Jr. He eventually moved closer to King's dream of racial unity in 1964 but died the next year, before his dream was realized.MALCOLM X1925–65AuthorEnglishOriginal Language1965Year PublishedMalcolm X and Alex HaleyAuthorsThe Autobiography of Malcolm XNonfictionAutobiography

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