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(Course Hero, 2017)
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The Tipping Point |
Introduction | Summary
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The Introduction lays out Gladwell's central thesis. Social epidemics are spurred by Tipping Points, or moments of sudden and unexpected change.
His first example is the American shoe brand Hush Puppies, which went from obscurity to trending popularity between 1994 and 1995 for seemingly mysterious reasons.
His second example, which he'll explore in greater detail in Chapter 4, is New York City's sudden drop in crime in the early 1990s. Murder rates fell by two-thirds within five years—again, without a clear cause.
Gladwell believes ideas and behaviors spread like viral disease epidemics. He calls these transformations "social epidemics."
These epidemics follow three rules. They're contagious, spreading from person to person; small causes lead to large effects; and the changes are nearly instant, not gradual.
The Tipping Point theory may challenge readers' perceptions of these three rules.
Contagion happens with behaviors and emotions, not just physical diseases.
Minor causes can have drastic results, challenging humans' ideas of cause and effect being related "in intensity and dimension." Instead epidemics follow the mathematical rule of "geometric progression" where a virus "doubles and doubles again" until the effect far exceeds the cause.
The Tipping Point itself is the moment where change occurs instantly, described as "the threshold, the boiling point."
Gladwell says the expression tipping point first "came into popular use" in the 1970s, when sociologists examined "white flight" to the suburbs as urban neighborhoods became racially integrated. When the neighborhood reached a certain racial balance in the population, "the community would 'tip.'" New technologies have a similar Tipping Point when they rise rapidly in popularity.
Gladwell's goal in the book is to learn why certain products, ideas, and behaviors take off while others remain stagnant. He hopes his analysis will help readers create "positive epidemics of our own."