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Test Your Knowledge: The Philosophes Quiz

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1. Which Enlightenment philosopher is best known for his advocacy of freedom of speech and religion?

2. The 'Social Contract' theory, which posits that the legitimacy of the state is founded on an agreement or contract with its people, is most closely associated with which philosopher?

3. Who among the following philosophers is renowned for his theories on the separation of powers within the government?

4. 'Candide' is a satirical novel that criticizes optimism and the philosophy of Leibniz. Who is the author of this work?

5. Which Enlightenment thinker is principally associated with the idea of empiricism, the theory that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience?

6. The 'Encyclopédie' was a monumental work aimed at compiling and disseminating knowledge. Who was one of its chief editors?

7. Immanuel Kant's famous maxim, 'Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own understanding,' encapsulates which Enlightenment ideal?

8. Which philosopher argued that private property is the source of all societal ills and inequality?

9. Who among the following philosophers is known for their deistic beliefs, advocating for a universe governed by natural laws without divine intervention?

10. Who is known for the argument that human beings are born free, but everywhere they are in chains, highlighting the contrast between natural and political freedom?