Scandals exposing corruption in the government in the post–Civil War years led to calls for a new approach to filling the bureaucracy. The assassination of President James A. Garfield in 1881 by an individual angered by his failure to gain an appointive position gave new energy to the calls for reform. In 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Act, a law that provided for an open, nonpartisan method for choosing individuals to fill jobs in the executive bureaucracy. While only a fraction of jobs were covered when the law was passed, that proportion has grown to be more than 90 percent of all federal employees. Employment is now based on applicants' education, experience, and skills and ability to pass an examination. Employees are governed by the General Schedule Classification System, a system that establishes official titles, levels of work, and pay grades for all civil service positions in the government. Rules establish procedures for raises, promotion, discipline, and the ending of employment. After passing a probationary period, workers are given substantial job security.