Third Parties in U.S. History
In the 1840s and 1850s, before the Civil War, two minor parties—the Liberty Party and the Free Soil Party—were active opponents of slavery. In 1854 elements of both groups joined with former members of the Whig Party to form the Republican Party. In its initial political campaigns, the Republicans strongly favored preventing slavery from spreading to new territories, and Republicans were the driving force behind the amendments to the U.S. Constitution that ended slavery, gave citizenship to all African Americans, and gave African American males the right to vote.
One of the most influential third-party movements was the Populist Party of the late 19th century. The Populists, largely supported by western and southern farmers, pushed for reforms aimed at promoting more democratic government and curbing the power of corporations. The Populists pushed for creation of a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, increased reliance on silver rather than gold to back U.S. currency, and the direct election of senators. Populist candidate James B. Weaver captured more than one million popular votes and 22 electoral votes in the 1892 presidential election, and Populists won several state and congressional offices that year. While the party faded, some of its goals were adopted by others during the Progressive era, a period between the 1890s and 1920s characterized by widespread social activism and zeal for political reform. Some of those goals were realized through the passage and ratification of Progressive-era amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Progressive Era Constitutional Amendments
|16th||1913||Granted Congress the power to levy a graduated income tax|
|17th||1913||Provided for the direct election of U.S. senators, rather than their election by state legislators|
|18th||1920||Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages (repealed in 1933 by the 21st Amendment)|
|19th||1920||Established women's suffrage across the United States|
Notable Third-Party Candidates for President, 1912–2008
|Candidate||Party||Year||Popular Vote||% of Popular Vote||Electoral Votes|
|George Wallace||American Independent||1968||9,906,473||13.5%||46|
Types of Third Parties
To have a chance to succeed in a presidential election, third parties need to be more national in focus. These national efforts can take two forms. Some third parties are ideological, supporting a particular set of issues, as was the case with the Populists. In the early 20th century the Socialist Party, led by Eugene V. Debs for many years, advocated radical transformation of the U.S. economy to curb corporate influence and give more power to workers. In the 21st century the Green Party promotes environmentalism and social justice, and the Libertarian Party favors limited government and individual rights.
Some third-party efforts are focused less on ideology and more on the appeal of a charismatic leader. Roosevelt's run to regain the presidency in 1912 reflected both his reform-minded agenda and his personal appeal. Similarly, H. Ross Perot, a successful business leader, had a strong third-party candidacy in 1992 and 1996 based largely on his appeal as a common-sense leader who could end the bickering of politicians from the two parties and solve pressing national problems. Perot's success—winning nearly one out of every five votes in 1992—underscores the difficulties that national third-party candidates face. Whereas Thurmond won 39 electoral votes with only 2.4 percent of the national vote because he had a strong regional appeal, Perot won zero electoral votes despite taking 19 percent of the popular vote.
Barriers to Third Parties
- Ballot access laws: State laws regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to appear on voters' ballots. Those laws are made by legislators belonging to the two major parties, who may cooperate to make it difficult for third-party candidates to even be listed on the ballot.
- Media attention: Media outlets may give scant attention to third-party candidates, which hampers their ability to get their message out to voters.
- Debate participation: When media outlets stage debates between candidates for a political office, they always invite the two major-party candidates to take part. They may not invite third-party candidates, if those candidates are perceived to have very little support—or if the major party candidates refuse to participate if they are allowed. Without access to the free media coverage that debate participation entails, the third-party candidates are hampered in their ability to present their message to voters and potentially win more support.
- Money: Political campaigns are expensive. Major party candidates benefit from receiving funds from the party treasury or from donors who traditionally support candidates of a given party. Third-party candidates do not have an equivalent party structure or donor base, making it difficult for them to raise the vast sums needed to fund a strong campaign. Wealthy third-party candidates, such as Perot and Michael Bloomberg, who was twice elected mayor of New York City, usually fare better than candidates without vast personal wealth.
- Cooption of third-party ideas: Sometimes one or the other of the major parties adopts the ideas of a third party when those ideas have strong popular appeal. No longer the sole advocate of the proposed new policy, and hampered by its minority status, the third party can lose support.
- Single-issue focus: Third-party campaigns that focus on just one issue have difficulty mustering the broad voter support needed to win a campaign.
In his 1951 book Political Parties, French sociologist and politician Maurice Duverger formulated what is commonly referred to as "Duverger's Law"—that single member districts decided by plurality voting rules will result in two parties dominating elections. As he put it, a "simple majority single-ballot system favors the two-party system." By this argument, two factors push politics to a two-party system. First, smaller third parties are likely to join together in an effort to boost their chances of victory since they need to win the support of as many voters as possible. Second, smaller parties gradually disappear due to lack of support since voters—who see little likelihood in their victory—refuse to vote for them on the grounds that doing so is wasting their vote. Duverger argued that electoral districts with multiple seats that are awarded based on proportional representation rather than plurality tend to support multiparty politics. Political scientists have analyzed elections in many countries and have conflicting views on the validity of Duverger's model. Nevertheless, it does seem to reflect the reality of U.S. House elections and in state legislatures.