Anatomical Terminology

Vocabulary

diaphragm

skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic (chest) cavity from the abdominal (stomach) cavity. It is the muscle used for breathing

epigastric region

upper central section of the abdomen containing the stomach, the liver, the pancreas, and the kidneys

hypochondriac region

part of the abdomen on either side of the epigastric region containing the spleen and kidneys

hypogastric region

lower central section of the abdomen that contains the small intestines, the sigmoid colon, and the bladder

inguinal region

part of the lower abdomen on either side of the hypogastric region containing the small intestine, the ascending and descending colon, the cecum, the appendix, and the sigmoid colon

lumbar region

part of the midabdomen on either side of the umbilical region that contains the liver tip, the small intestine, the ascending and descending colon, and the kidneys

meninges

three membranes that encase the brain and spinal cord and include the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater

mesentery

tissue that attaches organs such as the stomach and the intestines to the abdominal wall and contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics of the intestines

parietal peritoneum

serous membrane that lines the abdominal wall

parietal pleura

outer membrane that attaches the lungs to the walls of the thoracic cavity

pericardium

tough membrane that surrounds and protects the heart

peritoneum

serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and covers most organs within the cavity

pleura

two layers of serous membrane that protect and cushion the lungs

umbilical region

part of the abdominopelvic region that contains the small intestine, the transverse colon, the stomach, and the pancreas

visceral peritoneum

serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs

visceral pleura

membrane that covers and protects the surface of each lung