Digestion and Absorption

Vocabulary

acinar cell

pancreatic cell that produces and releases pancreatic juices into the small intestine

alimentary canal

entire passageway from the mouth to the anus where food passes through

ampulla of Vater

where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct meet

appendix

small hollow tube protruding from the large intestine that aids in cultivating gut microbiome to repopulate the intestines following illness

bile

fluid mixture secreted by the liver that emulsifies lipids in the small intestine

brush border

surface of the intestinal epithelial cells that is covered with microvilli

chylomicron

lipoprotein particle formed in order to transport lipids from the intestines to the lymphatic system

defecation

release of feces from the body

enterocyte

epithelial cell predominantly found in the lumen of the small intestine or internal lining

flatus

gases in and released from the intestines

gut microbiome

hundreds of species of bacteria found in the stomach

haustra

small pouches of the colon

islet cell

pancreatic cell that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream

lacteal

lymphatic vessel in the small intestine that absorbs digested fat

micelle

small collection of lipids and bile salts that interact with intestinal epithelial cells

sphincter of Oddi

sphincter that allows pancreatic juices and bile to flow from the pancreas and liver into the small intestine

taenia coli

bands of smooth muscle fibers that produce haustra of the colon