Gas Exchange and Transport

Vocabulary

2,3-bisphosphoglycerate

3-carbon isomer that binds with deoxygenated hemoglobin that decreases hemoglobin's ability to bind with oxygen

acidosis

decrease in blood pH level

alkalosis

increase in blood pH level

alveolus (plural, alveoli)

cavity in the lungs where gas exchange takes place

Bohr effect

weakening of the bonds between hemoglobin and oxygen

capillary

any of a vast network of tiny vessels that enable the exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes between tissues and blood

Dalton's law of partial pressure

total gas pressure in a system is the sum of the pressures of each individual gas in that system

deoxyhemoglobin

hemoglobin that is no longer attached to an oxygen molecule

dorsal respiratory group

series of nerves that collects information from the peripheral nervous system and chemoreceptors and sends it to the ventral respiratory group

eupnea

normal, unlabored breathing

feed-forward mechanism

anticipatory response that initiates the feedback loops involved with the action

Haldane effect

weakening of the bonds between hemoglobin and carbon dioxide

hemoglobin

protein found in red blood cells responsible for carrying 98.5 percent of all oxygen in the blood

hemoglobin F

special form of hemoglobin found in a fetus that has a higher affinity for oxygen

Henry's law

states that gases dissolving in liquids will do so in proportion to their partial pressures

hypercapnia

increased carbon dioxide levels in the brain

hyperpnea

increased depth and rate of breathing in response to higher metabolic demands of the body

hypocapnia

reduced carbon dioxide levels in the body

hypoxia

drop in normal oxygen level in the blood that induces the ventral respiratory group to increase breathing to restore blood oxygen level back to normal

oxyhemoglobin

molecule formed when oxygen binds with hemoglobin

oxyhemoglobin-dissociation curve

graph that shows how partial pressures in the lungs and tissues change in their oxygen saturation based on oxygen concentrations in the blood

partial pressure

pressure put forth by each of the gases in a system, where the pressure is directly proportional to the amount of the particular gas

surfactant

fluid with lipoprotein that coats the surfaces of the alveoli and keeps them from collapsing during expiration

ventral respiratory group

network of nerves that extends from the spinal cord to the site where the pons and medulla oblongata meet and creates the rhythm of breathing