Vocabulary

bulbous corpuscle

encapsulated nerve ending that detects sustained touch, pressure, and stretch

chemoreceptor

sensory receptor that detects dissolved chemicals in the blood or extracellular fluid

cochlear hair cell

cell in the cochlea that moves in response to incoming sound waves and alters generation of impulses in the auditory nerve

encapsulated sensory neuron

neuron with nerve endings surrounded by connective tissue or cells, which are sensitive to touch or vibration

end bulb

encapsulated nerve ending that detects light touch in mucous membranes

exteroceptor

sensory receptor that detects information from the external environment and is found throughout the skin and in the special senses

free nerve ending

nonencapsulated nerve ending of a sensory receptor that is bare and not associated with another cell or tissue

hair follicle receptor

nonencapsulated nerve ending of a sensory receptor that wraps around hair follicles and detects movement of the hair

interoceptor

sensory receptor that detects stimuli from the internal environment and is found in most internal organs

lamellar corpuscle

encapsulated nerve ending that detects vibration and deep pressure in the skin, joints, and some internal organs

lens

biconvex transparent structure found posterior to the iris that bends light to focus on the retina

lingual papilla

visible bump on the surface of the tongue that houses taste buds, typically on its upper surface

mechanoreceptor

sensory receptor that detects mechanical stresses, including, pressure, touch, and stretch

nociceptor

sensory receptor that detects potentially damaging stimuli, such as intense heat, to which the brain initiates a negative response

nonencapsulated sensory neuron

sensory neuron with no sheath of connective tissue; includes nociceptors, thermoreceptors, and some mechanoreceptors

optic nerve

cranial nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain

photoreceptor

sensory receptor that responds to light

proprioceptor

sensory receptor that receives mechanical stimuli about body positions and movements and is found in muscles, tendons, and ligaments

pupil

opening in the eye formed by the iris that changes diameter to control the amount of light entering the eye

retina

innermost layer of the wall of the eye that contains a layer of pigmented cells, the photoreceptors, and neurons

sensory receptors

cells in the peripheral nervous system that reacts to stimuli

special senses

have receptors found within complex organs of the head to detect senses of vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell, and taste

tactile corpuscle

encapsulated nerve ending beneath the epidermis, especially in the palms and soles, that detects light touch

tactile disc

nonencapsulated nerve ending on a mechanoreceptor that detects general light touch

thermoreceptor

sensory receptor that detects changes in temperature

tympanic membrane

membrane that separates the outer and middle ear and transfers the incoming sound wave to the auditory ossicles of the middle ear

vestibular nerve

cranial nerve that transmits equilibrium sensory information from the inner ear to the brain