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Consumer and Environmental Protection


bait-and-switch advertising

when sellers promote one product but seller makes that product unavailable in an attempt to sell a different or more expensive product

Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (BCFP)

agency that administers federal consumer laws and protections for consumers engaged in the financial marketplace; also known as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)

Clean Air Act (CAA)

law that gives the EPA authority to regulate existing air pollution and the ongoing production of pollution

Clean Water Act (CWA)

1972 law amending the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948; regulates the discharge of pollutants into U.S. waters

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

far-reaching, retroactive law concerning hazardous substances on a site

consumer product

good that is typically bought for personal, family, or household use

environmental impact statement (EIS)

federally mandated report that must be prepared for every substantial federal activity that will affect the quality of the land, air, or water

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

federal organization tasked with issuing and enforcing regulations to combat all forms of pollution and to protect endangered species

EPA self-disclosure policies

system of EPA policies that encourage organizations to do environmental self-auditing to reduce any fines the EPA might impose for violations

executive order

directive issued by the president of the United States that regulates the federal government and has the force and effect of law

express warranty

promise or guarantee by the seller or manufacturer that goods meet certain performance standards

Fair Packaging and Labeling Act

1966 law that requires product packaging to contain the name and address of the manufacturer or distributor and the net quantity on the package. The package label must also accurately describe the contents.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

independent federal agency that was created by a federal act to protect consumers, prevent anticompetitive business practices, and improve organizations' performance

full warranty

guarantees free repair of a defective product and that if the product cannot be fixed, the consumer has the choice of a refund or a free replacement

limited warranty

guarantee that offers anything less than free repair, replacement, or a cash refund when a product is defective

Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act

1975 federal law that governs manufacturers and sellers of consumer products that make an express written warranty

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

1970 environmental law that set forth the United States's policy of protecting the environment


exaggerated, subjective claim made by the seller during a sales pitch to promote the product

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

1976 federal law giving the EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from generation to disposal, as well as manage nonhazardous solid wastes

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

1974 federal law that sets standards for drinking water supplied by the public water system

Telephone Consumer Protection Act

federal law that forbids telemarketers from making autodialed or prerecorded messages unless the consumer agreed in writing; requires an opt-out mechanism for consumer to tell telemarketer to stop calling

U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)

federal executive department responsible for enforcing the law