amino acid

organic molecule that contains a carboxyl group (COOH{-}{\rm{COOH}}), an amino group (NH2{-}{\rm{NH}}_2), and a functional (R) chain, which is a group of atoms unique in its structure and function


organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and provides energy to cells

condensation reaction

chemical reaction that combines two molecules together with the elimination of a water molecule


process where the molecular structure of a protein is modified in such a way that hydrogen bonds are broken, causing proteins to lose their higher-ordered, three-dimensional structure

fatty acid

long hydrocarbon chain with a tail made of several hydrocarbons and a single carboxylic group

functional group

group of atoms with specific physical, chemical, and reactivity properties


organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds


chemical reaction of breaking down a molecule into another form through the addition of water


long-chain hydrocarbon that is soluble in nonpolar solvents, that is, solvents without charge


complex molecule that contains a large number of atoms


single molecule that when combined with other monomers forms a larger molecule called a polymer


organic compound consisting of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. This compound forms the basis of a genetic sequence.

organic compound

compound consisting of molecules that contain one or more carbon-hydrogen bonds


large molecule made of repeating smaller units of similar structures that are bonded together