graph that shows how the rate of photosynthesis is affected by different wavelengths of light
reduced form of the biological unit of energy, ATP. ADP has one less phosphate group than ATP.
biological unit of energy that consists of an adenosine (an adenine group and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups
cell in which the Calvin cycle takes place in C4 plants around the veins of the leaves
plant that undergoes the typical metabolic pathways that fix carbon into three-carbon molecules
plant that uses an alternate metabolic pathway in which carbon is fixed into four-carbon molecules
plant that uses an alternate metabolic pathway in which carbon is fixed into organic acids at night and passed on to the Calvin cycle during the day
movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane down their electrochemical gradient, which results in a charge that can be used as a source of energy
membrane-bound organelle found in plants and some other organisms that captures energy from light and converts it into chemical energy
enzyme in the thylakoid membrane that forms part of the electron transport chain that moves electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I
stack of thylakoid sacs where the light reactions of photosynthesis take place
cell in a leaf that contains chloroplasts, where photosynthesis takes place, or where carbon fixation occurs in C4 plants
reduced form of NADP+ that serves as an electron carrier in the Calvin cycle. The H at the end denotes that the molecule contains an extra hydrogen atom along with two high-energy electrons as compared to NADP+.
uptake of O2 and release of CO2 driven by light, which consumes energy and decreases the output from photosynthesis
process by which autotrophs convert light energy into chemical energy that is stored in organic compounds, such as sugars
second light-capturing complex found in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that converts light energy into chemical energy
first light-capturing complex found in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that converts light energy into chemical energy
structure with many uses, such as functioning as a small channel between mesophyll cells and bundle-sheath cells through which molecules pass between carbon fixation in the mesophyll cells and the Calvin cycle in the bundle-sheath cells. This channel extends through the cell wall of a plant cell and directly connects the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells.
molecule that is produced after CO2 is passed on to the Calvin cycle in C4 photosynthesis, which regenerates PEP
enzyme that adds one carbon to a five-carbon sugar called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) during carbon fixation
small opening mostly found on the undersides of leaves that allows for gas exchange between the plant and the external environment