form of reproduction that does not involve fusion of gametes, producing offspring genetically identical to the parent
structure consisting of two sets of sister chromatids (from replicated homologous chromosomes) connected by the synaptonemal, ladderlike complex prior to the first meiotic division
chiasma (plural, chiasmata)
location on homologous chromosomes in a bivalent where crossing-over occurs
having a double set of chromosomes in homologous pairs. The diploid condition is designated by 2n.
having a single set of chromosomes, which is half the total of the parent. The haploid condition is designated by 1n or n.
identical pairs of chromosomes that are formed during synapsis of meiosis I in diploid organisms
random distribution of homologous chromosome pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes during meiosis
failure of chromosomes or chromatids to separate during anaphase I or II of meiosis, resulting in an uneven distribution of genetic material
form of reproduction that involves fusion of gametes, producing offspring that differ genetically from either parent