Molecular Genetic Techniques



use of computers and mathematics to store and analyze biological data

clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)

group of bacterial DNA sequences that are used to defend against viruses. The system can be altered and used to target and modify specific gene sequences.

dideoxy sequencing

method used to obtain the nucleotide sequence of a strand of DNA

DNA amplification

process by which many copies of a piece of DNA are made in a laboratory

DNA cloning

use of recombinant DNA technology to replicate DNA within a rapidly reproducing organism

DNA microarray assay

use of a large number of single-stranded DNA pieces attached to a microscope slide in a grid pattern to determine gene expression

DNA primer

anchor and starting point for DNA polymerase to add free nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA in the lab

gel electrophoresis

technique that separates DNA and other molecules based on their size using electric charge

genetic engineering

direct modification of an organism's genome to change an organism's traits

green fluorescent protein (GFP)

protein common in jellyfish that glows green in the presence of ultraviolet light and is often inserted into other organisms


small, circular piece of bacterial DNA that replicates on its own and can be transferred between cells

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

technique for rapidly amplifying a section of DNA

recombinant DNA

DNA created from more than one individual, possibly of different species

reporter gene

gene that encodes a protein that can be easily tracked and, when attached to another gene or sequence of genes, the reporter gene will alert researchers to their expression

restriction site

place on a DNA strand that contains specific sequences of nucleotides and can be recognized by restriction enzymes

RNA interference (RNAi)

blocking of a gene's expression by a small segment of interfering RNA


carrier of recombinant DNA