rapid change in membrane potential because of changes in the flux of potassium and sodium ions inside and outside the cell
cotransport of two substrates by a membrane transport protein in which the substrates cross the membrane in opposite directions
transmembrane ATPase that pumps Ca2+ ions out of the cytosol and into either the extracellular space or a calcium-sequestering organelle
protein that physically binds to a molecule and facilitates its transport across the cell membrane's lipid bilayer
protein that creates a pathway with a hydrophilic (having a strong affinity to water) interior for ions or polar molecules to pass through
transmembrane protein that transports one substrate against its gradient by coupling it to a transport of a second substrate down its gradient
change of the voltage across the membrane above resting membrane potential. It is the opposite of hyperpolarization.
membrane-bound ATPase that generates a proton gradient. Some may be run in reverse to synthesize ATP.
change in the voltage across the membrane below resting membrane potential. It is the opposite of depolarization.
transmembrane protein that creates a hydrophilic (having a strong affinity to water) channel with a specificity filter that allows a single type of ion to pass through
double layer of lipids that separates the cell interior from the external environment and regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell
membrane that encloses a cell and is made of layers of lipids, organic molecules made of carbon and hydrogen
ungated channel specific for K+ ions that aids in maintaining resting membrane potential
transmembrane ATPase that pumps sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
cotransport of two substrates by a membrane transport protein in which the substrates cross the membrane in the same direction
protein that spans a lipid membrane and uses ATP hydrolysis to transport a substrate across the membrane against its concentration gradient
transmembrane protein that transports a substrate across the membrane, either by facilitated diffusion down the gradient or by cotransport against the gradient of one substrate and down the gradient of the other
receptor that acts as a gate allowing ions into or out of the cell in response to a change in electrical charge across the membrane