### Even and Odd Functions

A function can be even, odd, or neither. The graph of a function that is even or odd has a type of symmetry. If a graph has symmetry with respect to a line, then the part of the graph on one side of the line is a mirror image of the other half of the line. If a graph has symmetry with respect to a point, then the image of the graph is the same after it has been turned by 180º.

Some examples of even functions are $f(x)=x^n$, where $n$ is any even number. Some examples of odd functions are $f(x)=x^n$, where $n$ is any odd number.

Knowing whether a function is even or odd can be useful in graphing because one half of the function can be graphed and the other half can be determined using symmetry. The graph of an **even function** is symmetric with respect to the $y$-axis. The graph of an **odd function** is symmetric with respect to the origin.

Even Functions | Odd Functions |
---|---|

The $y$-axis is a line of symmetry for the graph. | The graph has rotational symmetry about the origin, meaning that the graph looks the same after it is rotated 180° about the origin. |

The output of the function does not change if $x$ is replaced with $-x$. | Replacing $x$ with $-x$ changes the sign of the output. |

$f(-x)=f(x)$ |
$f(-x)=-f(x)$ |

### Increasing, Decreasing, and Constant Functions

A graph can be increasing, decreasing, or constant over a given interval. In an **increasing function**, the $y$-values increase as the $x$-values increase. The graph is going up from left to right. An example of an increasing function is a line with a positive slope.

In a **decreasing function**, the $y$-values decrease as the $x$-values increase. The graph is going down from left to right. An example of a decreasing function is a line with a negative slope.

In a **constant function**, the output values are all the same. The graph is not going up or down. A constant function is a line with a slope of zero.

Knowing whether a graph is increasing, decreasing, or constant can help determine information about the function. For example, if a function represents the profit of a company, the intervals where the graph is increasing or decreasing tell what values will have a profit that is increasing or decreasing.

Increasing Functions | Decreasing Functions | Constant Functions |
---|---|---|

The $y$-values increase as the $x$-values increase. | The $y$-values decrease as the $x$-values increase. | The output values are all the same. The graph is a horizontal line. |

### Maxima and Minima

A **turning point** on a graph is a point where the graph changes from increasing to decreasing or from decreasing to increasing. If the graph changes from increasing to decreasing ($\nearrow\ \searrow$), the turning point is a **local maximum**. If the graph changes from decreasing to increasing ($\searrow\ \nearrow$), the turning point is a **local minimum**. The point where the value of a function is greatest is the **global maximum**, and the point where the value is least is the **global minimum**. The **maximum value** of a function is the greatest value in the range. The **minimum value** of a function is the least value in the range. If the range of a function extends to infinity, it does not have a global maximum. If the range extends to negative infinity, it does not have a global minimum.

- A function has a local maximum at $x=c$ if the point $(c, f(c))$ on the graph is higher than the points on either side of $c$. It is the global maximum if there are no other points on the graph that are higher than $f(c)$. In this case, $f(c)$ is the maximum value of $f$.
- A function has a local minimum at $x=c$ if the point $(c, f(c))$ on the graph is lower than the points on either side of $c$. It is the global minimum if there are no other points on the graph that are lower than $f(c)$. In this case, $f(c)$ is the minimum value of $f$.

Determine the domain and range of the function.

The arrows at the ends of the graph indicate that the graph continues to negative infinity on the left and positive infinity on the right. So the domain of the function is $\left(-\infty,\infty\right)$.

The lowest point on the graph has a $y$-value of zero. The arrows are extending up, so the range extends to infinity in the positive direction. So the range of the function is $\left[0,\infty\right)$.Determine whether the function is even, odd, or neither.

The $y$-axis is a line of symmetry for the graph. So, the function is even.Determine where the function is increasing and decreasing.

The graph goes down, then up, then down, and then up. Use interval notation to represent where the $x$-values are increasing and decreasing:

- The function is decreasing on the intervals $(-\infty,-2)$ and $\left(0,2\right)$.
- The function is increasing on the intervals $\left(-2,0\right)$ and $\left(2,\infty\right)$.

Determine the maximum and minimum of the function. The graph has three turning points: $(-2,0)$, $(0,16)$, and $(2,0)$.

The turning points at $x=-2$ and $x=2$ are local minima because the graph changes from decreasing to increasing. They are also the lowest points on the graph. So, $x=-2$ and $x=2$ are also global minima, while zero is the minimum value of the function.

The turning point at $x=0$ is a local maximum because the graph changes from increasing to decreasing. However, there are other points on the graph that have a greater $y$-value than 16. There is no greatest value in the range. So, the function has no global maximum.Summarize the information about the function.

- Domain: $\left(-\infty,\infty\right)$
- Range: $\left[0,\infty\right)$
- Even function
- Decreasing over $(-\infty,-2)$ and $\left(0, 2\right)$
- Increasing over $\left(-2,0\right)$ and $\left(2,\infty\right)$
- Local maximum: $x=0$
- Global maximum: None
- Maximum value: None
- Minimum value: Zero

- Local minima: $x=-2$
- Global minima: $x=2$