# Acids and Bases

## Vocabulary

### amphiprotic

able to act as both a proton donor and a proton acceptor

### analyte

solution being analyzed (titrated) to determine its concentration

### Brønsted-Lowry acid

compound that can donate a proton to another compound in solution

### Brønsted-Lowry base

compound that can accept a proton from another compound in solution

### buret

type of graduated tube with a stopcock at the end that allows fine control of the release of the titrant

### conjugate acid

molecule or ion formed when a Brønsted-Lowry base has accepted a proton

### conjugate base

molecule or ion remaining after a Brønsted-Lowry acid donates its proton to another molecule or ion

### equivalence point

pH at which all of the acid or base molecules in an acidic or basic solution have been neutralized

### gravimetric analysis

analysis using the mass of a precipitate formed by a reaction to determine the starting concentration

### indicator

chemical that undergoes a color change near or at the equivalence point in a titration

### ionization constant

ratio of concentration of products to reactants at equilibrium. It can be used to calculate the strength of an acid or a base

### Le Chatelier's principle

principle that states that a change in the temperature, pressure, or concentration of a component will cause the equilibrium condition of a chemical system to change in a way that reduces the change

### neutral

having equal concentrations of H+ and OH ions in a solution

### pH

measure of the concentration of H+ (or H3O+) ions in solution; $\rm{pH}=-\log\left[{\rm{H_3O^+}}\right]$

### pOH

measure of the concentration of OH ions in solution; $\rm{pOH}=-\log\left[{\rm{OH^-}}\right]$

### strong acid or base

acid or base that completely dissociates and has a pH close to one end of the spectrum. Strong acids have a large Ka, and strong bases have a large Kb.

### titrant

solution of known concentration that is used to neutralize a solution of unknown concentration (the analyte) in order to determine its concentration

### titration

quantitative method that relies on measuring the volume of a solution of a known concentration necessary to neutralize a given volume of acid or base

### weak acid or base

acid or base in which only a fraction of the molecules dissociates, resulting in a low concentration of H+ or OH ions and a pH closer to the middle of the range