distance between the nuclei of the atoms forming a bond, usually expressed in picometers (pm) or angstroms (Å)
attractive or repulsive force between two polar molecules resulting from partial positive and partial negative charges of the molecules
hypothetical charge assigned to an atom in a molecule with the assumption that bonding electrons are shared equally
weak intermolecular bond between a hydrogen atom of one molecule and a highly electronegative atom of a nearby molecule. The electronegative atom is usually fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen.
dipole that forms because of a short-lived imbalance in charge distribution in an otherwise nonpolar atom or molecule
attractive or repulsive force between a molecule and a nearby molecule, atom, or ion
attractive or repulsive force between atoms that make up a molecule or between ions
electrostatic interaction between ions and polar ends of molecules with permanent dipoles
model that represents covalent bonds and nonbonding electrons with symbols, dots, and lines
interaction between induced, instantaneous dipoles in nonpolar molecules or atoms
three-dimensional shape of a molecule that takes into account bonding and nonbonding electron pairs and molecular rotations to minimize their interactions
covalent bond in which the nuclei of the bonded atoms exert equal or nearly equal force on the shared electrons
rule that states that atoms tend to share or donate electrons such that the valence shell contains eight electrons
covalent bond in which the electron density is more localized on one end of the bond. One end is slightly positive, and one end is slightly negative.
ability for dipole moments to change because of the presence of an applied electric field
dipole-dipole interaction, London dispersion force, or intermolecular force between permanent molecular dipoles