# Electrochemistry

## Vocabulary

### anode

electrode where the oxidation half-reaction takes place

### battery

galvanic cell in which the electrical work is used as a source of electrical power

### cathode

electrode where the reduction half-reaction takes place

### cathodic protection

method of protecting a metal by sacrificing another metal as an anode in a galvanic cell

### circuit

path through which electrons flow

### corrosion

process by which metals oxidize and return from a reduced form to their natural oxidation state

### dry cell

galvanic cell in which the electrolytes exist as pastes

### electric current

flow of electric charge

### electric potential

amount of work required to move one charged particle from one point to another

### electrical work

voltage between two points when a charged particle is moved between them

### electrochemistry

branch of science that studies chemical reactions that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge

### electrode

electrical conductor through which current enters or leaves an electrochemical cell

### electrolysis

process of using electric current to do work on a chemical cell against its electric potential

### electrolyte

ionic solution that can be decomposed by electricity

### electrolytic cell

electrochemical cell that requires electrical energy to drive a nonspontaneous redox reaction

charge of one mole of electrons (96,485 C/mol)

### fuel cell

device that generates electrical power through the ionization of hydrogen or another molecule

### galvanic cell

electrochemical cell formed when metal strips connected by a wire are immersed in different solutions of a redox reaction and the solutions are connected by a salt bridge

### galvanic cell notation

shorthand method of describing the setup of a galvanic cell

### galvanization

process that coats a metal with zinc as a sacrificial anode

### inert electrode

electrode that does not take part in a chemical reaction but serves only to transfer electrons

### Nernst equation

equation used to find the cell potential under conditions that are not standard, given as $E=E^\circ-\frac{RT}{nF}\ln Q$

### oxidation half-reaction

half-reaction showing oxidation (electron loss) of a species

### reduction half-reaction

half-reaction showing reduction (electron gain) of a species

### sacrificial anode

anode made of a metal coupled to a more valuable metal, which it protects as part of a galvanic cell that undergoes galvanic corrosion

### salt bridge

inert connection between the two half-cells, composed of either a glass tube filled with an inert salt solution or a strip of filter paper soaked in an inert salt solution, that transfers ions between the half-cells

### standard cell potential

potential difference between the cathode and the anode under standard conditions

### standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)

platinum electrode in 1 M H+(aq) solution with bubbled hydrogen gas at 1 atm of pressure

### standard reduction potential (E°)

tendency of the species to be reduced under standard conditions