Energy and Calorimetry

Vocabulary

bomb calorimeter

constant-volume calorimeter used to measure the heat of reaction for combustion reactions

calorie

energy required to change the temperature of one gram of water by 1°C

calorimeter

device used to measure the heat exchanged between a system and its surroundings

calorimetry

study of heat exchange between a system and its surroundings

chemical energy

energy released during a chemical reaction

chemical thermodynamics

study of the flow of energy during chemical reactions or phase changes

elastic energy

energy stored as a result of a material's deformation

endothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is absorbed in the form of heat or light

energy

capacity to do work

exothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is released in the form of heat or light

first law of thermodynamics

law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one type of energy to another type of energy; given as $\Delta U=q+w$

heat

transfer of thermal energy

heat capacity (C)

amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a system by 1°C

heat of reaction

net heat released or absorbed by a chemical reaction at a constant pressure

internal energy (U)

sum of all kinetic energy and potential energy of the particles in a system

isolated system

system that does not exchange heat or matter with the surroundings

joule (J)

SI unit of energy; $1\;\rm J=1\;\rm{kg}\cdot\rm m^2/\rm s^2$

kinetic energy (KE)

energy of an object in motion

potential energy (PE)

energy of an object based on its position

specific heat (c)

amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1°C

surroundings

part of the universe that is in immediate contact with a system

system

part of the universe that is being studied

temperature

measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance

thermal energy

kinetic energy of the particles that make up a system

thermochemistry

science of energy changes associated with chemical reactions

work (w)

energy that is transferred when a force acts on an object over a distance