# Energy and Calorimetry

## Vocabulary

### bomb calorimeter

constant-volume calorimeter used to measure the heat of reaction for combustion reactions

### calorie

energy required to change the temperature of one gram of water by 1°C

### calorimeter

device used to measure the heat exchanged between a system and its surroundings

### calorimetry

study of heat exchange between a system and its surroundings

### chemical energy

energy released during a chemical reaction

### chemical thermodynamics

study of the flow of energy during chemical reactions or phase changes

### elastic energy

energy stored as a result of a material's deformation

### endothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is absorbed in the form of heat or light

### energy

capacity to do work

### exothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is released in the form of heat or light

### first law of thermodynamics

law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one type of energy to another type of energy; given as $\Delta U=q+w$

### heat

transfer of thermal energy

### heat capacity (C)

amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a system by 1°C

### heat of reaction

net heat released or absorbed by a chemical reaction at a constant pressure

### internal energy (U)

sum of all kinetic energy and potential energy of the particles in a system

### isolated system

system that does not exchange heat or matter with the surroundings

### joule (J)

SI unit of energy; $1\;\rm J=1\;\rm{kg}\cdot\rm m^2/\rm s^2$

### kinetic energy (KE)

energy of an object in motion

### potential energy (PE)

energy of an object based on its position

### specific heat (c)

amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1°C

### surroundings

part of the universe that is in immediate contact with a system

### system

part of the universe that is being studied

### temperature

measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance

### thermal energy

kinetic energy of the particles that make up a system

### thermochemistry

science of energy changes associated with chemical reactions

### work (w)

energy that is transferred when a force acts on an object over a distance