Introduction to Chemistry

Vocabulary

atom

smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element

chemical property

characteristic of matter that can be observed through a change in the composition of a substance

chemical reaction

process in which atoms from one or more substances rearrange, resulting in a different substance or substances

chemistry

scientific discipline that is concerned with describing matter and how matter behaves

compound

substance in which atoms of two or more elements are bonded together

diatomic

composed of two atoms

element

substance composed of atoms that have the same number of protons

extensive physical property

characteristic of a substance that depends on the amount of the substance

gas

state of matter that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape, consisting of particles that are far apart and move randomly to fill their container

heterogeneous mixture

combination of two or more substances that are unevenly distributed

homogeneous mixture

combination of two or more substances that are evenly distributed

hypothesis

prediction based on a limited number of observations

intensive physical property

characteristic of a substance that is independent of the amount of the substance

law

statement of what happens under certain conditions that is verified by multiple experiments

liquid

state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape, consisting of particles that are close together and flow freely

matter

anything that has mass and occupies space

mixture

substance composed of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded

molecule

group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds

monatomic

existing as a single atom

physical property

measurable state or attribute that can be observed without changing the composition of a substance

plasma

state of matter consisting of charged particles in a diffuse gaseous state with equal numbers of positive ions and free electrons

qualitative observation

observation that does not include measurement or mathematical analysis

quantitative observation

observation that includes measurement or mathematical analysis

scientific method

systematic procedure used by scientists to conduct research consisting of observation, measurement, and experimentation, as well as the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses

solid

state of matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape, consisting of particles that are closely packed and move only by vibrating

theory

well-substantiated and experimentally verified explanation that describes phenomena