### absolute zero

minimum possible temperature theoretically achievable, equal to 0 K (–273.15°C), at which there is no particle motion

### accuracy

how close a measurement is to a value that is widely accepted to be the true value

### balance

laboratory tool used to measure mass

### Celsius temperature scale

temperature scale based on a freezing point of water of 0°C and a boiling point of water of 100°C at sea level

### conversion factor

algebraic ratio between two different units

### density

amount of matter contained in a given volume

### dimensional analysis

technique in which the relationship between units is tracked throughout a calculation

### extensive physical property

property of matter that depends on the amount of matter present

### Fahrenheit temperature scale

temperature scale based on a freezing point of water of 32°F and a boiling point of water of 212°F at sea level

### intensive physical property

property of matter that does not depend on the amount of matter present

### International System of Units (SI)

system of units used by the global scientific community, built on seven base units: ampere, candela, kelvin, kilogram, meter, mole, and second

### Kelvin temperature scale

absolute temperature scale based on the Celsius scale but shifted so that the lowest possible temperature is 0 K

### mass (*m*)

amount of matter in an object

### meniscus

curved surface of a liquid in a thin tube

### precision

degree to which a measurement can be reproduced

### random error

error in a measurement caused by an unknown or unpredictable source, such as an experimenter making a mistake

### scientific notation

method of expressing numbers as a coefficient greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10, multiplied by 10 raised to the appropriate power

### SI base unit

one of the seven fundamental units of measurements in the International System of Units

### significant figures

number of digits in a measurement that are certain, plus one digit that contains some uncertainty

### system of measurement

set of units in which some units are defined in relationship to other units in the system and not by a physical standard

### systematic error

consistent error in measurements that leads to a precise but inaccurate measurement

### true value

value that would be obtained in an ideal measurement

### volume (*V*)

amount of space occupied by a given mass

### weight (*w*)

measure of the force of gravity acting on an object