Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals


acid anhydride

oxide that forms an acid in water

alkali metal

element (except hydrogen) in group 1 of the periodic table

alkaline earth metal

element in group 2 of the periodic table


one of the possible physical forms in which an element can exist

amorphous solid

solid composed of particles that are not organized into a crystalline pattern

base anhydride

oxide that forms a base in water


ion with boron-oxygen bonds


substance with the carbonate ion, CO32–

disproportionation reaction

reaction in which the element is both reduced and oxidized

Haber-Bosch process

process that breaks down the nitrogen-nitrogen bonds in N2 and converts nitrogen into ammonia (NH3)


element in group 17 of the periodic table

hydrogen carbonate

substance with the HCO3 ion


reaction in which hydrogen is added to a compound


compound that consists of more than one halogen element, such as ClF or IF5

main group element

element in group 1, 2, or 13 to 18 of the periodic table


one of a class of elements that tend to have a metallic luster, be good conductors of electricity and thermal energy, and be malleable and ductile


one of a class of elements that tend to have properties of both metals and nonmetals

nitrogen fixation

process of breaking down N2 into more usable nitrogen compounds

noble gas

element in group 18 of the periodic table


one of a class of elements that tend to not have metallic luster, be poor conductors of electricity and thermal energy, and be neither malleable nor ductile


process of making a material less reactive by coating it or letting the top layer react often with oxygen in the air


compound that has an oxygen-oxygen bond in which the oxidation state of oxygen is –1


solid material with more than one possible structure


mineral that contains both silicon and oxygen

transition metal

element in group 3 through 12 of the periodic table