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Organic Chemistry



hydrocarbon containing a hydroxyl functional group


organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (C=O{\rm{C}{=}{O}}) bound to one alkyl (R{-\rm{R}}) fragment and one hydrogen atom, with RC(=O)H{\rm{RC({=}O)H}} or RCHO{\rm{R}{-}{CHO}} stoichiometry

alicyclic molecule

cyclic hydrocarbon that contains nonaromatic rings

aliphatic compound

hydrocarbon that contains only straight or branched carbon-carbon chains


hydrocarbon containing only CC{\rm{C}{-}{C}} single bonds and hydrogen atoms with CnH2n+2 stoichiometry


hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond (C=C{\rm{C}{=}{C}}) with CnH2n stoichiometry


hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (CC{\rm{C}{\equiv}{C}}) with CnH2n-2 stoichiometry


organic compound with a general RC(=O)NRR{\rm{RC({=}O)NRR^\prime}} stoichiometry that contains a carbonyl (C=O{\rm{C}{=}{O}}) linked to a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom can have between zero and two additional carbon-nitrogen (CN{\rm{C}{-}{N}}) bonds.


organic compound that is a derivative of ammonia (NH3), in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl units (R), forming NR{\rm{N}{-}{R}} single bonds

aromatic compound

planar hydrocarbon of CnHn stoichiometry that consists of alternating CC{\rm{C}{-}{C}} and C=C{\rm{C}{=}{C}} bonds. Benzene (C6H6) is the smallest neutral carbon-only aromatic compound.

carbonyl group

functional group containing a C=O{\rm{C}{=}{O}} double bond

carboxyl group

functional group containing a C=O{\rm{C}{=}{O}} unit linked to an OH{{-}\rm{OH}} (hydroxyl) fragment of RC(=O)OH{\rm{R{-}C({=}O)OH}} or RCOOH\rm{R{-}COOH} stoichiometry

carboxylic acid

compound that contains an alkyl or aryl group (R) attached to a carboxyl group (COOH{{-}\rm{COOH}})

chiral molecule

molecule that does not have a plane of symmetry and its isomers cannot be rotated or reflected to match


stereoisomer that has a mirror image that is not superimposable on itself


organic compound that contains a carboxyl unit in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group, giving it RC(=O)OR{\rm{R{-}C({=}O)OR^\prime}} or RCOOR{\rm{R{-}COOR^\prime}} stoichiometry


organic molecule containing an oxygen atom bound by two alkyl or aryl groups through CO{\rm{C}{-}{O}} bonds

functional group

group of atoms with specific physical, chemical, and reactivity properties

geometric isomer

one of two or more molecules that have different spatial arrangements of functional groups around a double bond, ring, or other rigid structures


organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds


addition of a hydroxyl group (OH{{-}\rm{OH}}) to a molecule, which can be accomplished by a substitution reaction with an alkyl halide

hydroxyl group

functional group with the formula OH{{-}\rm{OH}} that forms COH{\rm{C}{-}{OH}} fragments and characterizes molecules called alcohols and phenols


one of two or more molecules that have the same chemical formula but different molecular structures

organic compound

compound that contains one or more carbon-hydrogen bonds


benzene ring in which a CH{\rm{C}{-}{H}} bond is substituted for a hydroxyl group, producing a COH{\rm{C}{-}{OH}} unit

saturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds and CH{\rm{C}{-}{H}} bonds

stereogenic center

carbon atom with four unique substituents


atom or group of atoms (functional group) that replaces a CH{\rm{C}{-}{H}} bond in an organic compound


organic compound that is derived from H2S. It contains an alkyl or aryl group covalently linked to a sulfhydryl group, SH{{-}\rm{SH}} , through CS{\rm{C}{-}{S}} bonds, with RSH{\rm{R}{-}{SH}} stoichiometry.

unsaturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains CH{\rm{C}{-}{H}} bonds in addition to one or more carbon-carbon C=C {\rm{C}{=}{C}} or CC{\rm{C}{\equiv}{C}} bonds