Organic Chemistry

Vocabulary

alcohol

hydrocarbon containing a hydroxyl functional group

aldehyde

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$) bound to one alkyl (${-\rm{R}}$) fragment and one hydrogen atom, with ${\rm{RC({=}O)H}}$ or ${\rm{R}{-}{CHO}}$ stoichiometry

alicyclic molecule

cyclic hydrocarbon that contains nonaromatic rings

aliphatic compound

hydrocarbon that contains only straight or branched carbon-carbon chains

alkane

hydrocarbon containing only ${\rm{C}{-}{C}}$ single bonds and hydrogen atoms with CnH2n+2 stoichiometry

alkene

hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond (${\rm{C}{=}{C}}$) with CnH2n stoichiometry

alkyne

hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (${\rm{C}{\equiv}{C}}$) with CnH2n-2 stoichiometry

amide

organic compound with a general ${\rm{RC({=}O)NRR^\prime}}$ stoichiometry that contains a carbonyl (${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$) linked to a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom can have between zero and two additional carbon-nitrogen (${\rm{C}{-}{N}}$) bonds.

amine

organic compound that is a derivative of ammonia (NH3), in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl units (R), forming ${\rm{N}{-}{R}}$ single bonds

aromatic compound

planar hydrocarbon of CnHn stoichiometry that consists of alternating ${\rm{C}{-}{C}}$ and ${\rm{C}{=}{C}}$ bonds. Benzene (C6H6) is the smallest neutral carbon-only aromatic compound.

carbonyl group

functional group containing a ${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$ double bond

carboxyl group

functional group containing a ${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$ unit linked to an ${{-}\rm{OH}}$ (hydroxyl) fragment of ${\rm{R{-}C({=}O)OH}}$ or $\rm{R{-}COOH}$ stoichiometry

carboxylic acid

compound that contains an alkyl or aryl group (R) attached to a carboxyl group (${{-}\rm{COOH}}$)

chiral molecule

molecule that does not have a plane of symmetry and its isomers cannot be rotated or reflected to match

enantiomer

stereoisomer that has a mirror image that is not superimposable on itself

ester

organic compound that contains a carboxyl unit in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group, giving it ${\rm{R{-}C({=}O)OR^\prime}}$ or ${\rm{R{-}COOR^\prime}}$ stoichiometry

ether

organic molecule containing an oxygen atom bound by two alkyl or aryl groups through ${\rm{C}{-}{O}}$ bonds

functional group

group of atoms with specific physical, chemical, and reactivity properties

geometric isomer

one of two or more molecules that have different spatial arrangements of functional groups around a double bond, ring, or other rigid structures

hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds

hydrolysis

addition of a hydroxyl group (${{-}\rm{OH}}$) to a molecule, which can be accomplished by a substitution reaction with an alkyl halide

hydroxyl group

functional group with the formula ${{-}\rm{OH}}$ that forms ${\rm{C}{-}{OH}}$ fragments and characterizes molecules called alcohols and phenols

isomer

one of two or more molecules that have the same chemical formula but different molecular structures

organic compound

compound that contains one or more carbon-hydrogen bonds

phenol

benzene ring in which a ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bond is substituted for a hydroxyl group, producing a ${\rm{C}{-}{OH}}$ unit

saturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds and ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bonds

stereogenic center

carbon atom with four unique substituents

substituent

atom or group of atoms (functional group) that replaces a ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bond in an organic compound

thiol

organic compound that is derived from H2S. It contains an alkyl or aryl group covalently linked to a sulfhydryl group, ${{-}\rm{SH}}$ , through ${\rm{C}{-}{S}}$ bonds, with ${\rm{R}{-}{SH}}$ stoichiometry.

unsaturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bonds in addition to one or more carbon-carbon ${\rm{C}{=}{C}}$ or ${\rm{C}{\equiv}{C}}$ bonds