# Organic Chemistry

## Vocabulary

### alcohol

hydrocarbon containing a hydroxyl functional group

### aldehyde

organic compound that contains a carbonyl group (${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$) bound to one alkyl (${-\rm{R}}$) fragment and one hydrogen atom, with ${\rm{RC({=}O)H}}$ or ${\rm{R}{-}{CHO}}$ stoichiometry

### alicyclic molecule

cyclic hydrocarbon that contains nonaromatic rings

### aliphatic compound

hydrocarbon that contains only straight or branched carbon-carbon chains

### alkane

hydrocarbon containing only ${\rm{C}{-}{C}}$ single bonds and hydrogen atoms with CnH2n+2 stoichiometry

### alkene

hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond (${\rm{C}{=}{C}}$) with CnH2n stoichiometry

### alkyne

hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (${\rm{C}{\equiv}{C}}$) with CnH2n-2 stoichiometry

### amide

organic compound with a general ${\rm{RC({=}O)NRR^\prime}}$ stoichiometry that contains a carbonyl (${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$) linked to a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom can have between zero and two additional carbon-nitrogen (${\rm{C}{-}{N}}$) bonds.

### amine

organic compound that is a derivative of ammonia (NH3), in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl units (R), forming ${\rm{N}{-}{R}}$ single bonds

### aromatic compound

planar hydrocarbon of CnHn stoichiometry that consists of alternating ${\rm{C}{-}{C}}$ and ${\rm{C}{=}{C}}$ bonds. Benzene (C6H6) is the smallest neutral carbon-only aromatic compound.

### carbonyl group

functional group containing a ${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$ double bond

### carboxyl group

functional group containing a ${\rm{C}{=}{O}}$ unit linked to an ${{-}\rm{OH}}$ (hydroxyl) fragment of ${\rm{R{-}C({=}O)OH}}$ or $\rm{R{-}COOH}$ stoichiometry

### carboxylic acid

compound that contains an alkyl or aryl group (R) attached to a carboxyl group (${{-}\rm{COOH}}$)

### chiral molecule

molecule that does not have a plane of symmetry and its isomers cannot be rotated or reflected to match

### enantiomer

stereoisomer that has a mirror image that is not superimposable on itself

### ester

organic compound that contains a carboxyl unit in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group, giving it ${\rm{R{-}C({=}O)OR^\prime}}$ or ${\rm{R{-}COOR^\prime}}$ stoichiometry

### ether

organic molecule containing an oxygen atom bound by two alkyl or aryl groups through ${\rm{C}{-}{O}}$ bonds

### functional group

group of atoms with specific physical, chemical, and reactivity properties

### geometric isomer

one of two or more molecules that have different spatial arrangements of functional groups around a double bond, ring, or other rigid structures

### hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds

### hydrolysis

addition of a hydroxyl group (${{-}\rm{OH}}$) to a molecule, which can be accomplished by a substitution reaction with an alkyl halide

### hydroxyl group

functional group with the formula ${{-}\rm{OH}}$ that forms ${\rm{C}{-}{OH}}$ fragments and characterizes molecules called alcohols and phenols

### isomer

one of two or more molecules that have the same chemical formula but different molecular structures

### organic compound

compound that contains one or more carbon-hydrogen bonds

### phenol

benzene ring in which a ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bond is substituted for a hydroxyl group, producing a ${\rm{C}{-}{OH}}$ unit

### saturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds and ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bonds

### stereogenic center

carbon atom with four unique substituents

### substituent

atom or group of atoms (functional group) that replaces a ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bond in an organic compound

### thiol

organic compound that is derived from H2S. It contains an alkyl or aryl group covalently linked to a sulfhydryl group, ${{-}\rm{SH}}$ , through ${\rm{C}{-}{S}}$ bonds, with ${\rm{R}{-}{SH}}$ stoichiometry.

### unsaturated hydrocarbon

organic compound that contains ${\rm{C}{-}{H}}$ bonds in addition to one or more carbon-carbon ${\rm{C}{=}{C}}$ or ${\rm{C}{\equiv}{C}}$ bonds