Reactions in Chemistry

Vocabulary

addition reaction

reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form products

balanced equation

equation that describes a chemical reaction in which the number of atoms of each element involved in the reaction and the total charge are balanced

chemical equation

representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols

chemical reaction

process in which atoms from one or more substances rearrange, resulting in a different substance or substances

coefficient

multiplier that can be placed in front of the chemical symbol of a substance in a chemical reaction

combustion

burning a substance, often called fuel, with an oxidizer, which is often oxygen

decomposition reaction

reaction in which a single compound breaks apart into two or more substances

double-displacement reaction

type of reaction in which two reactants exchange atoms or groups

endothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is absorbed in the form of heat or light

exothermic reaction

reaction in which energy is released in the form of heat or light

insoluble

incapable of being dissolved in another substance

ionic equation

equation in which an ionic compound is shown as ions

net ionic equation

ionic equation without spectator ions

oxidation

reaction that involves the removal of an electron from an atom

oxidation state

hypothetical charge assigned to an atom, ion, or polyatomic ion, indicating how many electrons have been lost (or gained)

oxidation-reduction reaction

type of reaction where the oxidation states of two or more atoms change

oxidizing agent

substance that causes oxidation of another substance

precipitate

insoluble product that settles as a residue at the bottom of the reaction container

precipitation reaction

reaction that forms an insoluble salt, which forms as a solid in the reaction container

product

substance formed during a chemical reaction

reactant

substance that reacts in a chemical reaction

reducing agent

substance that causes reduction of another substance

reduction

reaction that involves the addition of an electron to an atom

single-displacement reaction

type of reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms from a reactant is replaced with another atom or group of atoms in the products

solubility

maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in another substance at specific conditions

solute

dissolved material in a solution

solvent

substance that dissolves a material to form a solution

spectator ion

ion that does not participate in a reaction and is present in both the reactant side and the product side

valence electron

electron in the outermost shell of an atom