Solutions and Colloids



mixture of two or more metallic elements


mixture containing particles that do not settle

dispersed phase

substance with particles that are spread out and suspended in a colloid, analogous to the solute

dispersion medium

substance in which the particles are suspended in a colloid, analogous to the solvent

fractional distillation

separation of two liquids by boiling in stages

Henry's law

law that states that the amount of a gas that dissolves in a certain type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid at a specific temperature, represented by the equation C=kPgas C=kP_{\rm{gas}}


solvated by water molecules

hydration enthalpy

energy released when one mole of solute becomes completely hydrated


at a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids


at a pressure lower than the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids

ideal solution

solution for which ΔHsoln=0 \Delta H_{\rm{soln}}=0

ion-dipole interaction

electrostatic interaction between ions and polar ends of molecules with permanent dipoles


at the same osmotic pressure as bodily fluids


able to form a homogeneous (evenly distributed) mixture when added together in any proportion

molality (m)

concentration expressed as the number of moles of a solute divided by the mass of solvent in kilograms

molar solubility

molarity of a compound in a saturated solution

molarity (M)

number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution

mole fraction

concentration expressed as the moles of solvent divided by the total number of all moles in solution

osmotic pressure

pressure needed to stop the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane

saturation point

concentration at which no more solute dissolves in a solution for a given temperature and pressure

semipermeable membrane

barrier through which certain types of particles can pass but not others


dissolved material in a solution


homogeneous mixture of two or more substances


completely surrounded by solvent molecules


substance that dissolves a material to form a solution

strong electrolyte

ionic compound that dissociates completely into its component ions in solution


condition in which a solution contains more solute than can be dissolved in the solution under normal circumstances

Tyndall effect

phenomenon of light being scattered by a colloid


condition in which more solute can be dissolved into the solution

weak electrolyte

ionic compound that only partially dissociates into its component ions in solution