Solutions and Colloids

Vocabulary

alloy

mixture of two or more metallic elements

colloid

mixture containing particles that do not settle

dispersed phase

substance with particles that are spread out and suspended in a colloid, analogous to the solute

dispersion medium

substance in which the particles are suspended in a colloid, analogous to the solvent

fractional distillation

separation of two liquids by boiling in stages

Henry's law

law that states that the amount of a gas that dissolves in a certain type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid at a specific temperature, represented by the equation $C=kP_{\rm{gas}}$

hydrated

solvated by water molecules

hydration enthalpy

energy released when one mole of solute becomes completely hydrated

hypertonic

at a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids

hypotonic

at a pressure lower than the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids

ideal solution

solution for which $\Delta H_{\rm{soln}}=0$

ion-dipole interaction

electrostatic interaction between ions and polar ends of molecules with permanent dipoles

isotonic

at the same osmotic pressure as bodily fluids

miscible

able to form a homogeneous (evenly distributed) mixture when added together in any proportion

molality (m)

concentration expressed as the number of moles of a solute divided by the mass of solvent in kilograms

molar solubility

molarity of a compound in a saturated solution

molarity (M)

number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution

mole fraction

concentration expressed as the moles of solvent divided by the total number of all moles in solution

osmotic pressure

pressure needed to stop the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane

saturation point

concentration at which no more solute dissolves in a solution for a given temperature and pressure

semipermeable membrane

barrier through which certain types of particles can pass but not others

solute

dissolved material in a solution

solution

homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

solvated

completely surrounded by solvent molecules

solvent

substance that dissolves a material to form a solution

strong electrolyte

ionic compound that dissociates completely into its component ions in solution

supersaturated

condition in which a solution contains more solute than can be dissolved in the solution under normal circumstances

Tyndall effect

phenomenon of light being scattered by a colloid

unsaturated

condition in which more solute can be dissolved into the solution

weak electrolyte

ionic compound that only partially dissociates into its component ions in solution