What Is Organic Chemistry?
While organic compounds also contain atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and halogens, most organic compounds contain more carbon-hydrogen bonds than any other type of bond. An organic compound that contains only carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds is called a hydrocarbon. The four main classes of hydrocarbons are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics. An aliphatic compound is a hydrocarbon that contains only straight or branched carbon-carbon chains. Alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes are examples of aliphatic compounds. An aromatic compound is a planar hydrocarbon with CnHn stoichiometry that consists of alternating and bonds. Benzene (C6H6) is the smallest neutral carbon-only aromatic compound. An important facet of organic chemistry is the ability and tendency of carbon molecules to bond to atoms other than hydrogen. An atom or group of atoms (functional group) that replaces a bond in an organic compound is called a substituent. Substituents can be several different kinds of atoms or groups of atoms, called functional groups. A functional group is a group of atoms with specific physical, chemical, and reactivity properties. When representing a functional group, an R is often used to indicate the remainder of the molecule that is not part of the functional group.The skeletal structure of an organic compound is drawn using zigzag lines that represent carbon-carbon bonds. To save time, no or bonds are illustrated. In a skeletal structure, the carbon and hydrogen atoms are all implied, where each carbon atom has four bonds to it and a hydrogen atom is bonded to a single carbon center. There is an understanding that a carbon atom is located at every vertex of the zigzag, and every carbon atom is bound to four other atoms, so any bonds that are not drawn explicitly are assumed to be hydrogen atoms. Any atom or functional group that is not a carbon atom or a hydrogen atom has to be written.
Structural Formula and Skeletal Structure
Classes of Organic Functional Groups, Examples, and Their Systematic Naming
|Family Name||Functional Group Structure||Example Compound||Example Skeletal Structure|
|Ethanoic acid (acetic acid)|