DNA Technology and Genomics



the use of computers and mathematics to store and analyze biological data


the use of organisms or their products for the benefit of humans

complementary base pairing

the alignment of nucleotide bases according to specific rules: adenine always pairs with thymine (or uracil in RNA), and cytosine always pairs with guanine


group of bacterial DNA sequences that are used to defend against viruses; can be used to target and modify specific gene sequences

DNA amplification

the process by which many copies of a piece of DNA are made

DNA cloning

use of recombinant DNA technology to replicate DNA within a rapidly reproducing organism

DNA ligase

enzyme that assists in joining DNA strands

DNA primer

anchor and starting point for DNA polymerase to add free nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA


enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence point

gel electrophoresis

technique that separates DNA and other molecules based on their size using an electric charge

gene annotation

process of determining the function of a gene and its protein

gene therapy

use of recombinant DNA technology to modify a person's genes to combat a disease

genetic engineering

direct modification of a genome to change an organism's traits

genetically modified organism (GMO)

organism whose genome was modified through the addition of recombinant DNA


the genetic material of an organism


study of an organism's entire set of DNA and how its genes interact

nuclear transfer

process of placing the nucleus of a body cell into an enucleated egg cell in order to create a clone


small, circular piece of bacterial DNA that replicates on its own and can be transferred between cells


ability of a cell to give rise to many different cell types

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

technique for rapidly producing many copies of a section of DNA

recombinant DNA

DNA created from more than one individual, possibly of a different species

repetitive DNA

non-coding regions of DNA that include repeating sequences

stem cell

cell able to reproduce indefinitely and develop into other types of specialized cells


ability of a cell to be able to give rise to an entire organism from a single cell


uptake and incorporation of foreign DNA by a bacterial cell


containing recombinant DNA from another species


carrier of recombinant DNA