Plant Life Cycles and Reproduction

Vocabulary

alternation of generations

the production of alternating asexual and sexual reproductive stages, consisting of a multicellular gametophyte (haploid) generation and a multicellular sporophyte (diploid) generation

anther

the male part of the flower that produces microspores and develops pollen

antheridium (plural, antheridia)

the male reproductive organ in mosses and ferns

apomixis

plant reproduction in which sexual organs take part but seeds form without the union of gametes

archegonium (plural, archegonia)

the female reproductive organ in mosses and ferns

diploid

having a double set of chromosomes in homologous pairs; the diploid condition is designated by 2n

egg

a female reproductive cell or gamete

endosperm

the protective coating around an angiosperm seed

fertilization

the union of sperm and egg

filament

the stalk of the stamen that supports the anther

gametophyte

the multicellular haploid form taken by a plant during alternation of generations

germination

the period during which a seed begins to grow

haploid

having a single set of chromosomes, which is half the total of the parent; the haploid condition is designated by 1n or n

heterosporous

having two or more different types of spores

homosporous

having only one type of spore

ovule

a structure in an ovary that contains the female gametophyte and is fertilized by the sperm

pistil

the female organ of a flower

pollination

transfer of pollen from the male structures to female structures in a plant

rhizome

an underground stem growing horizontally that sends roots down and plant shoots upward from a primary plant

sepal

a leaflike structure that protects a flower bud

sperm

a male reproductive cell or gamete

sporangium (plural, sporangia)

a sac for producing spores

sporophyte

an organism that produces spores in a multicellular diploid form

stamen

the male, pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower

stigma

the part of a flower's carpel to which pollen sticks

stolon

a shoot that grows along the ground and sends out roots from shoot nodes

strobilus (plural, strobili)

structure in a gymnosperm that has overlapping scales, such as a pine cone

vascular plant

plant that has tissues for transporting water or sap

vegetative propagation

asexual reproduction in plants, such as stolons or by tubers

zygote

a fertilized egg