Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis



a condition in which the organism has an abnormal number of copies of a chromosome

asexual reproduction

a form of reproduction that does not involve fusion of gametes, producing offspring genetically identical to the parent


the point on a chromosome that attaches to the spindle fibers during cell division and at which sister chromatids are attached


a structure that contains DNA, the genetic material that is passed from one generation to the next


the exchange of DNA between homologous chromosomes during meiosis


the pinching off of the cytoplasm to form two new cells


having a double set of chromosomes in homologous pairs; the diploid condition is designated by 2n


the sex cell of a sexually reproducing organism, with a haploid set of chromosomes


a unit of heritable material that codes for a particular trait

genetic disorder

any one of several diseases that are the result of mutations of damaged genes; they are often inherited


having a single set of chromosomes, which is half the total of the parent; the haploid condition is designated by 1n or n

homologous chromosomes

identical pairs of chromosomes which pair together during synapsis of meiosis I in diploid organisms

independent assortment

the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes during meiosis


a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, resulting in the production of gametes


the failure of chromosomes or chromatids to separate during anaphase I or II of meiosis that results in an uneven distribution of genetic material


the process of egg cell formation during meiosis

polar body

nonviable cell produced at the end of meiosis in females


a condition in which an organism has more than the normal full sets of chromosomes

sexual reproduction

a form of reproduction involving fusion of gametes, producing genetically unique offspring


the formation of sperm through the process of meiosis

spindle fiber

microtubule that attaches to chromosomes and pulls them to opposite poles of a cell during cell division


the pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis


the two pairs of homologous chromosomes (which share the same genes) that are formed and align next to each other during prophase I of meiosis