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anterograde amnesia

memory loss due to an inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory


combining smaller pieces of information together to form larger units

context-dependent learning

when memories are more easily retrieved in a setting that matches the setting in which original learning took place

distributed practice

learning sessions that are spread out over time, usually with breaks

elaborative rehearsal

the process of actively enhancing stored information with related information


the process of transforming perceptions, feelings, and thoughts into enduring mental structures

episodic memory

stored collection of personal experiences

explicit memory

stored information that can be consciously retrieved; factual information

false memory

recollection that is believed to be true but is actually contrary to fact

implicit memory

memory for behaviors people learn and retrieve without conscious awareness

long-term memory

system storing facts, experience, and skills for periods ranging from a few minutes to a lifetime

long-term potentiation (LTP)

increase in the strength of a connection between neurons that lasts from minutes to days

massed practice

continuous learning sessions with no rest breaks

memory consolidation

process of transferring information from short-term and working memory to long-term memory


technique that enhances learning and retrieval


nonconscious memory effect in which exposure to a cue influences the activation or recall of words, objects, or ideas

proactive interference

tendency of earlier learning to impair memory for information acquired later

procedural memory

acquisition of skills; "knowing how"


mental process that removes unwanted thoughts and memories from conscious awareness


process of bringing to consciousness information that was previously encoded and stored

retrieval cue

stimulus that brings previously learned information to consciousness

retroactive interference

tendency of later learning to impair memory of information learned earlier

retrograde amnesia

inability to retrieve information that was stored earlier

semantic memory

network of associated concepts that makes up a person's knowledge of the world

sensory memory

storage of information from the senses that lasts a few seconds or less

serial position effect

tendency to remember more information from the beginning and end of an event than from the middle

short-term memory

system storing information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute

source amnesia

inability to remember the context in which a memory was formed

working memory

information in short-term storage that is being actively processed